College of Education

About Us Admissions & Academics Research & Engagement Departments & Faculty Current Students

Richard Anderson

Key Professional Appointments

  • Professor Emeritus, Educational Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign

Research & Service

I currently have two active programs of research. The first is comparative analysis of learning to read alphabetic and nonalphabetic languages, especially English and Chinese. The second examines children's intellectual and social development in the context of free-flowing open-format discussions.

Publications

Sun, J., Anderson, R. C., Lin, T. J., Morris, J. A., Miller, B. W., Ma, S., Thi Nguyen-Jahiel, K., & Scott, T. (2022). Children's engagement during collaborative learning and direct instruction through the lens of participant structure. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 69, [102061].  link >

Anderson, R. C., Shirey, L. L., Wilson, P. T., & Fielding, L. G. (2021). Interestingness of children's reading material. In Conative and Affective Process Analyses (Vol. 3, pp. 287-299). Taylor and Francis.

Lin, T., Ma, S., Anderson, R. C., Jadallah, M., Sun, J., Morris, J. A., Miller, B. W., & Sallade, R. (2018). Promoting academic talk through Collaborative Reasoning. In R. M. Gillies (Ed.), Promoting Academic Talk in Schools: Global Practices and Perspectives (pp. 12-27). Routledge.  link >

Morris, J. A., Miller, B. W., Anderson, R. C., Nguyen-Jahiel, K. T., Lin, T. J., Scott, T., Zhang, J., Sun, J., & Ma, S. (2018). Instructional discourse and argumentative writing. International Journal of Educational Research, 90, 234-247.  link >

Sun, J., Datu, E., Warchola, G., & Anderson, R. C. (2018). Emergent leadership and its influence on collaborative and individual reasoning. Proceedings of International Conference of the Learning Sciences, ICLS, 2(2018-June), 977-980.

Anderson, R. C., Spiro, R. J., & Montague, W. E. (2017). Preface. In Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge (pp. ix-x). Taylor and Francis.

Anderson, R. C. (2017). The Notion of Schemata and the Educational Enterprise: General Discussion of the Conference. In Schooling and the Acquisition of Knowledge (pp. 415-432). Taylor and Francis.

Baker, A. R., Lin, T. J., Chen, J., Paul, N., Anderson, R. C., & Nguyen-Jahiel, K. (2017). Effects of teacher framing on student engagement during collaborative reasoning discussions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 51, 253-266.  link >

Ma, S., Zhang, J., Anderson, R. C., Morris, J., Nguyen-Jahiel, K. T., Miller, B., Jadallah, M., Sun, J., Lin, T. J., Scott, T., Hsu, Y. L., Zhang, X., Latawiec, B., & Grabow, K. (2017). Children's Productive Use of Academic Vocabulary. Discourse Processes, 54(1), 40-61.  link >

Ma, S., Anderson, R. C., Lin, T. J., Zhang, J., Morris, J. A., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., Miller, B. W., Jadallah, M., Scott, T., Sun, J., Grabow, K., Latawiec, B. M., & Yi, S. (2017). Instructional influences on English language learners' storytelling. Learning and Instruction, 49, 64-80.  link >

Sun, J., Jackson, J., Burns, M., & Anderson, R. C. (2017). Children’s emergent leadership and relational thinking in collaborative learning. In B. K. Smith, M. Borge, E. Mercier, & K. Y. Lim (Eds.), Making a Difference: Prioritizing Equity and Access in CSCL - 12th International Conference on Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, CSCL 2017 - Conference Proceedings (pp. 537-540). (Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning Conference, CSCL; Vol. 2). International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS).  link >

Sun, J., Anderson, R. C., Perry, M., & Lin, T. J. (2017). Emergent Leadership in Children's Cooperative Problem Solving Groups. Cognition and Instruction, 35(3), 212-235.  link >

Anderson, R. C., & Miao, X. (2016). Surficial geology of Rock Island County, Illinois. In Abstracts with Programs - Geological Society of America (Vol. 48:5).  link >

Kim, S. A., Packard, J., Christianson, K., Anderson, R. C., & Shin, J. A. (2016). Orthographic consistency and individual learner differences in second language literacy acquisition. Reading and Writing, 29(7), 1409-1434.  link >

Latawiec, B. M., Anderson, R. C., Ma, S., & Nguyen-Jahiel, K. (2016). Influence of Collaborative Reasoning discussions on metadiscourse in children's essays. Text and Talk, 36(1), 23-46.  link >

Wilkinson, I. A. G., Scott, J. A., Hiebert, E. H., & Anderson, R. C. (2016). Prologue: Becoming Becoming a Nation of Readers. Journal of Education, 196(3), 1-5.  link >

Zhang, X., Anderson, R. C., Morris, J., Miller, B., Nguyen-Jahiel, K. T., Lin, T. J., Zhang, J., Jadallah, M., Scott, T., Sun, J., Latawiec, B., Ma, S., Grabow, K., & Hsu, J. Y. L. (2016). Improving Children’s Competence as Decision Makers: Contrasting Effects of Collaborative Interaction and Direct Instruction. American Educational Research Journal, 53(1), 194-223.  link >

Zhang, J., Niu, C., Munawar, S., & Anderson, R. C. (2016). What makes a more proficient discussion group in English language learners' classrooms? Influence of teacher talk and student backgrounds. Research in the Teaching of English, 51(2), 183-208.

Cheng, Y., Zhang, J., Li, H., Anderson, R., Ding, F., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., Shu, H., & Wu, X. (2015). Moving from recitation to open-format literature discussion in Chinese classrooms. Instructional Science, 43(6), 643-664.  link >

Lin, T. J., Jadallah, M., Anderson, R. C., Baker, A. R., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., Kim, I. H., Kuo, L. J., Miller, B. W., Dong, T., & Wu, X. (2015). Less is more: Teachers' influence during peer collaboration. Journal of Educational Psychology, 107(2), 609-629.  link >

Lin, T. J., Anderson, R. C., Jadallah, M., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., Kim, I. H., Kuo, L. J., Miller, B. W., Logis, H. A., Dong, T., Wu, X., & Li, Y. (2015). Social influences on children's development of relational thinking during small-group discussions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 41(1), 83-97.  link >

Sun, J., Anderson, R. C., Lin, T-J., & Morris, J. (2015). Social and Cognitive Development During Collaborative Reasoning. In L. B. Resnick, C. S. C. Asterhan, & S. N. Clarke (Eds.), Socializing Intelligence Through Academic Talk and Dialogue (pp. 63-76). American Educational Research Association.

Lin, T. J., Horng, R. Y., & Anderson, R. C. (2014). Effects of argument scaffolding and source credibility on science text comprehension. Journal of Experimental Education, 82(2), 264-282.  link >

Miller, B. W., Anderson, R. C., Morris, J., Lin, T. J., Jadallah, M., & Sun, J. (2014). The effects of reading to prepare for argumentative discussion on cognitive engagement and conceptual growth. Learning and Instruction, 33, 67-80.  link >

Anderson, R. C., & Chen, X. (2013). Chinese Reading Development in Monolingual and Bilingual Learners: Introduction to the Special Issue. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17(1), 1-4.  link >

Anderson, R. C., Ku, Y. M., Li, W., Chen, X., Wu, X., & Shu, H. (2013). Learning to See the Patterns in Chinese Characters. Scientific Studies of Reading, 17(1), 41-56.  link >

Chen, X., Anderson, R. C., Li, H., & Shu, H. (2013). Visual, Phonological and Orthographic Strategies in Learning to Read Chinese. In X. Chen, Q. Wang, & Y. C. Luo (Eds.), Reading Development and Difficulties in Monolingual and Bilingual Chinese Children (pp. 23-47). (Literacy Studies; Vol. 8). Springer.  link >

Hao, M., Chen, X., Dronjic, V., Shu, H., & Anderson, R. C. (2013). The development of young Chinese children's morphological awareness: The role of semantic relatedness and morpheme type. Applied Psycholinguistics, 34(1), 45-67.  link >

Lin, T. J., Zhang, X., Li, Y., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., Miller, B., Anderson, R. C., & Dong, T. (2013). Children's moral reasoning: Influence of culture and collaborative discussion. Journal of Cognition and Culture, 13(5), 503-522.  link >

Miller, B., Sun, J., Wu, X., & Anderson, R. C. (2013). Child Leaders in Collaborative Groups. In C. E. Hmelo-Silver, C. A. Chinn, C. K. K. Chan, & A. M. O'Donnell (Eds.), The International Handbook of Collaborative Learning Routledge.  link >

Wu, X., Anderson, R. C., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., & Miller, B. (2013). Enhancing motivation and engagement through collaborative discussion. Journal of Educational Psychology, 105(3), 622-632.  link >

Zhang, J., Anderson, R. C., & Nguyen-Jahiel, K. (2013). Language-rich discussions for English language learners. International Journal of Educational Research, 58, 44-60.  link >

Zhang, J., Lin, T., Wei, J., & Anderson, R. C. (2013). Morphological Awareness and Learning to Read Chinese and English. In X. Chen, Q. Wang, & Y. C. Luo (Eds.), Reading Development and Difficulties in Monolingual and Bilingual Chinese Children (pp. 3-22). (Literacy Studies; Vol. 8). Springer.  link >

Jie, Z., Anderson, R. C., Qiuying, W., Packard, J., Xinchun, W., Shan, T., & Xiaoling, K. (2012). Insight into the structure of compound words among speakers of Chinese and English. Applied Psycholinguistics, 33(4), 753-779.  link >

Kuo, L. J., & Anderson, R. C. (2012). Effects of early bilingualism on learning phonological regularities in a new language. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111(3), 455-467.  link >

Lin, T. J., Anderson, R. C., Hummel, J. E., Jadallah, M., Miller, B. W., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., Morris, J. A., Kuo, L. J., Kim, I. H., Wu, X., & Dong, T. (2012). Children's Use of Analogy During Collaborative Reasoning. Child development, 83(4), 1429-1443.  link >

Ma'rof, A. M., Redzuan, M., Anderson, R. C., & Ma'rof, A. A. (2012). Improving young indigenous Malaysian children's incidental vocabulary acquisition and oral narrative skills through shared-book reading. Life Science Journal, 9(4), 841-848.

Jadallah, M., Anderson, R. C., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., Miller, B. W., Kim, I. H., Kuo, L. J., Dong, T., & Wu, X. (2011). Influence of a teacher's scaffolding moves during child-led small-group discussions. American Educational Research Journal, 48(1), 194-230.  link >

Kim, I. H., Anderson, R. C., Miller, B., Jeong, J., & Swim, T. (2011). Influence of Cultural Norms and Collaborative Discussions on Children's Reflective Essays. Discourse Processes, 48(7), 501-528.  link >

Lin, T. J., Anderson, R. C., Ku, Y. M., Christianson, K., & Packard, J. L. (2011). Chinese children's concept of word. Writing Systems Research, 3(1), 41-57.  link >

Yin, L., Li, W., Chen, X., Anderson, R. C., Zhang, J., Shu, H., & Jiang, W. (2011). The role of tone awareness and pinyin knowledge in Chinese reading. Writing Systems Research, 3(1), 59-68.  link >

Kuo, L. J., & Anderson, R. C. (2010). Beyond cross-language transfer: Reconceptualizing the impact of early bilingualism on phonological awareness. Scientific Studies of Reading, 14(4), 365-385.  link >

Zhang, J., Anderson, R. C., Li, H., Dong, Q., Wu, X., & Zhang, Y. (2010). Cross-language transfer of insight into the structure of compound words. Reading and Writing, 23(3), 311-336.  link >

Dong, T., Anderson, R. C., Lin, T. J., & Wu, X. (2009). Concurrent student-managed discussions in a large class. International Journal of Educational Research, 48(5), 352-367.  link >

Reznitskaya, A., Kuo, L. J., Clark, A. M., Miller, B., Jadallah, M., Anderson, R. C., & Nguyen-Jahiel, K. (2009). Collaborative reasoning: A dialogic approach to group discussions. Cambridge Journal of Education, 39(1), 29-48.  link >

Reznitskaya, A., Kuo, L. J., Glina, M., & Anderson, R. C. (2009). Measuring argumentative reasoning: What's behind the numbers? Learning and Individual Differences, 19(2), 219-224.  link >

Wu, X., Anderson, R. C., Li, W., Wu, X., Li, H., Zhang, J., Zheng, Q., Zhu, J., Shu, H., Jiang, W., Chen, X., Wang, Q., Yin, L., He, Y., Packard, J., & Gaffney, J. S. (2009). Morphological awareness and Chinese children's literacy development: An intervention study. Scientific Studies of Reading, 13(1), 26-52.  link >

Chen, X., Ku, Y. M., Koyama, E., Anderson, R. C., & Li, W. (2008). Development of phonological awareness in bilingual Chinese children. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 37(6), 405-418.  link >

Chen, X., & Anderson, R. C. (2008). Reflections on becoming a successful researcher. Educational Psychology Review, 20(1), 65-70.  link >

Dong, T., Anderson, R. C., Kim, I. H., & Li, Y. (2008). Collaborative reasoning in China and Korea. Reading Research Quarterly, 43(4), 400-424.  link >

Lin, T. J., & Anderson, R. C. (2008). Reflections on collaborative discourse, argumentation, and learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 33(3), 443-448.  link >

Kim, I. H., Anderson, R. C., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., & Archodidou, A. (2007). Discourse patterns during children's collaborative online discussions. Journal of the Learning Sciences, 16(3), 333-370.  link >

Kuo, L. J., & Anderson, R. C. (2007). Conceptual and methodological issues in comparing metalinguistic awareness across languages. In K. Koda, & A. M. Zehler (Eds.), Learning to Read Across Languages: Cross-Linguistic Relationships in First- and Second-Language Literacy Development (pp. 39-67). Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.  link >

Li, Y., Anderson, R. C., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., Dong, T., Archodidou, A., Kim, I. H., Kuo, L. J., Clark, A. M., Wu, X., Jadallah, M., & Miller, B. (2007). Emergent leadership in children's discussion groups. Cognition and Instruction, 25(1), 1-2.  link >

Reznitskaya, A., Anderson, R. C., & Kuo, L. J. (2007). Teaching and learning argumentation. Elementary School Journal, 107(5), 449-472.  link >

Yin, L., Anderson, R. C., & Zhu, J. (2007). Stages in Chinese Children's Reading of English Words. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(4), 852-866.  link >

Kuo, L. J., & Anderson, R. C. (2006). Morphological awareness and learning to read: A cross-language perspective. Educational Psychologist, 41(3), 161-180.  link >

Packard, J. L., Chen, X., Li, W., Wu, X., Gaffney, J. S., Li, H., & Anderson, R. C. (2006). Explicit instruction in orthographic structure and word morphology helps Chinese children learn to write characters. Reading and Writing, 19(5), 457-487.  link >

Reznitskaya, A., & Anderson, R. C. (2006). Analyzing Argumentation In Rich, Natural Contexts. Informal Logic, 26(2), 175-198.  link >

Anderson, R. C., & Li, W. (2005). A Cross-Language Perspective on Learning to Read. In A. McKeough, L. M. Phillips, V. Timmons, & J. L. Lupart (Eds.), Understanding Literacy Development: A Global View (pp. 65-91). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  link >

He, Y., Wang, Q., & Anderson, R. C. (2005). Chinese children's use of subcharacter information about pronunciation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97(4), 572-579.  link >

Pak, A. K. H., Cheng-Lai, A., Tso, I. F., Shu, H., Li, W., & Anderson, R. C. (2005). Visual chunking skills of Hong Kong children. Reading and Writing, 18(5), 437-454.  link >

Chen, X., Anderson, R. C., Li, W., Hao, M., Wu, X., & Shu, H. (2004). Phonological Awareness of Bilingual and Monolingual Chinese Children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(1), 142-151.  link >

Anderson, R. C., Li, W., Ku, Y. M., Shu, H., & Wu, N. (2003). Use of partial information in learning to read chinese characters. Journal of Educational Psychology, 95(1), 52-57.  link >

Chen, X., Shu, H., Wu, N., & Anderson, R. C. (2003). Stages in learning to pronounce Chinese characters. Psychology in the Schools, 40(1), 115-124.  link >

Clark, A. M., Anderson, R. C., Kuo, L. J., Kim, I. H., Archodidou, A., & Nguyen-Jahiel, K. (2003). Collaborative Reasoning: Expanding Ways for Children to Talk and Think in School. Educational Psychology Review, 15(2), 181-198.  link >

Ku, Y. M., & Anderson, R. C. (2003). Development of morphological awareness in Chinese and English. Reading and Writing, 16(5), 399-422.  link >

Shu, H., Chen, X., Andersen, R. C., Wu, N., & Xuan, Y. (2003). Properties of School Chinese: Implications for Learning to Read. Child development, 74(1), 27-47.  link >

Anderson, R. C., & Pearson, P. D. (2002). A Schema-Theoretic View of Basic Processes in Reading Comprehension. In P. D. Pearson (Ed.), Handbook of Reading Research (pp. 255-292). Taylor and Francis.  link >

Anderson, R. C., Gaffney, J. S., Xinchun, W., Chiung-chu, W., Wenling, L., Hua, S., Nagy, W. E., & Xiaojie, M. (2002). Shared-Book Reading in China. In L. Wenling, J. S. Gaffney, & J. L. Packard (Eds.), Chinese Children’s Reading Acquisition (pp. 131-155). Springer.  link >

Hua, S., Wenling, L., Anderson, R., Yu-min, K., & Xuan, Y. (2002). The Role of Home-Literacy Environment in Learning to Read Chinese. In L. Wenling, J. S. Gaffney, & J. L. Packard (Eds.), Chinese Children’s Reading Acquisition (pp. 207-223). Springer.  link >

Nagy, W. E., Kuo-kealoha, A., Xinchun, W., Wenling, L., Anderson, R. C., & Xi, C. (2002). The Role of Morphological Awareness in Learning to Read chinese. In L. Wenling, J. S. Gaffney, & J. L. Packard (Eds.), Chinese Children’s Reading Acquisition (pp. 59-86). Springer.  link >

Wenling, L., Anderson, R. C., Nagy, W., & Houcan, Z. (2002). Facets of Metalinguistic Awareness that Contribute to Chinese Literacy. In L. Wenling, J. S. Gaffney, & J. L. Packard (Eds.), Chinese Children’s Reading Acquisition (pp. 87-106). Springer.  link >

Xinchun, W., Anderson, R. C., Wenling, L., Xi, C., & Xiangzhi, M. (2002). Morphological Instruction and Teacher Training. In L. Wenling, J. S. Gaffney, & J. L. Packard (Eds.), Chinese Children’s Reading Acquisition (pp. 157-173). Springer.  link >

Anderson, R. C., Nguyen-Jahiel, K., McNurlen, B., Archodidou, A., Kim, S. Y., Reznitskaya, A., Tillmanns, M., & Gilbert, L. (2001). The snowball phenomenon: Spread of ways of talking and ways of thinking across groups of children. Cognition and Instruction, 19(1), 1-46.  link >

Chinn, C. A., Anderson, R. C., & Waggoner, M. A. (2001). Patterns of discourse in two kinds of literature discussion. Reading Research Quarterly, 36(4), 378-411.  link >

Ku, Y. M., & Anderson, R. C. (2001). Chinese Children's Incidental Learning of Word Meanings. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 26(2), 249-266.  link >

Reznitskaya, A., Anderson, R. C., Mcnurlen, B., Nguyen-jahiel, K., Archodidou, A., & Kim, S. (2001). Influence of Oral Discussion on Written Argument. Discourse Processes, 32(2-3), 155-175.  link >

Gaffney, J. S., & Anderson, R. C. (2000). Trends in Reading Research in the United States: Changing Intellectual Currents Over Three Decades. In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of Reading Research (Vol. 3, pp. 53-74). Taylor and Francis.  link >

Shu, H., Anderson, R. C., & Wu, N. (2000). Phonetic awareness: Knowledge of orthography-phonology relationships in the character acquisition of Chinese children. Journal of Educational Psychology, 92(1), 56-62.  link >

Taylor, B. M., Anderson, R. C., au, K. H., & Raphael, T. E. (2000). Discretion in the Translation of Research to Policy: A Case From Beginning Reading. Educational Researcher, 29(6), 16-26.  link >

Wu, X., Li, W., & Anderson, R. C. (1999). Reading instruction in China. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31(5), 571-586.  link >

Chinn, C. A., & Anderson, R. C. (1998). The structure of discussions that promote reasoning. Teachers College Record, 100(2), 315-368.

Anderson, R. C., Chinn, C., Chang, J., Waggoner, M., & Yi, H. (1997). On the logical integrity of children's arguments. Cognition and Instruction, 15(2), 135-167.  link >

Glaser, R., Lieberman, A., & Anderson, R. (1997). "The vision thing": Educational research and AERA in the 21st century part 3: Perspectives on the research-practice relationship. Educational Researcher, 26(7), 24-25.  link >

Shu, H., & Anderson, R. C. (1997). Role of radical awareness in the character and word acquisition of Chinese children. Reading Research Quarterly, 32(1), 78-89.  link >

Gaskins, R. W., Gaskins, I. W., Anderson, R. C., & Schommer, M. (1995). The reciprocal relationship between research and development: An example involving a decoding strand for poor readers. Journal of Literacy Research, 27(3), 337-377.  link >

Shu, H., Anderson, R. C., & Zhang, H. (1995). Incidental Learning of Word Meanings While Reading: A Chinese and American Cross-Cultural Study. Reading Research Quarterly, 30(1), 76-95.  link >

Waggoner, M., Chinn, C., Yi, H., & Anderson, R. C. (1995). Collaborative Reasoning About Stories. Language Arts, 72(8), 582-589.

Wilkinson, I. A. G., & Anderson, R. C. (1995). Sociocognitive Processes in Guided Silent Reading: A Microanalysis of Small-Group Lessons. Reading Research Quarterly, 30(4), 710-740.  link >

Chinn, C. A., Waggoner, M. A., Anderson, R. C., Schommer, M., & Wilkinson, I. A. G. (1993). Situated Actions During Reading Lessons: A Microanalysis of Oral Reading Error Episodes. American Educational Research Journal, 30(2), 361-392.  link >

Gaskins, I. W., Anderson, R. C., Pressley, M., Cunicelli, E. A., & Satlow, E. (1993). Six Teachers' Dialogue during Cognitive Process Instruction. Elementary School Journal, 93(3), 277-304.  link >

Jehng, J. C. J., Johnson, S. D., & Anderson, R. C. (1993). Schooling and students′ epistemological beliefs about learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 18(1), 23-35.  link >

Nagy, W. E., Diakidoy, I. A. N., & Anderson, R. C. (1993). The acquisition of morphology: Learning the contribution of suffixes to the meanings of derivatives. Journal of Literacy Research, 25(2), 155-170.  link >

Imai, M., Anderson, R. C., Wilkinson, I. A. G., & Yi, H. (1992). Properties of Attention During Reading Lessons. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84(2), 160-173.  link >

Anderson, R. C., Wilkinson, I. A. G., & Mason, J. M. (1991). A Microanalysis of the Small-Group, Guided Reading Lesson: Effects of an Emphasis on Global Story Meaning. Reading Research Quarterly, 26(4), 417-441.  link >

Anderson, R. C., Armbruster, B. B., & Roe, M. (1990). Improving the Education of Reading Teachers. Daedalus, 119(2), 187-209.

Anderson, R. C. (1990). Inferences about word meanings. Psychology of Learning and Motivation - Advances in Research and Theory, 25(C), 1-16.  link >

Mason, J. M., Anderson, R. C., Omura, A., Uchida, N., & Imai, M. (1989). Learning to read in Japan. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 21(5), 389-407.  link >

Nagy, W., Anderson, R. C., Schommer, M., Scott, J. A., & Stallman, A. C. (1989). Morphological Families in the Internal Lexicon. Reading Research Quarterly, 24(3), 262-282.  link >