College of Education

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Jennifer Cromley

Key Professional Appointments

  • Professor, Educational Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Education

PhD, Human Development, University of Maryland, College Park, 2005

Research & Service

Jennifer Cromley has two main lines of research: 1) comprehension of ilustrated scientific text and 2) achievement and retention of undergraduate students in STEM majors. She has conducted basic (e.g., eye tracking, think-aloud, regression) and applied (randomized control trial, quasi-experiment) research in both areas. Her experimental work has been done in lab, middle school, high school, and undergraduate settings, using both in-person and technology-delivered instruction. Her work has been funded by the US Department of Education, the US National Science Foundation, and other university grant programs. She has twice been named one of the world's most productive Educational Psychologists.

Publications

Bergey, B. W., Cromley, J. G., Kaplan, A., & Bloxton, J. D. (2022). Do Students’ Questions during Chemistry Lectures Predict Perceived Comprehension and Exam Performance? Journal of Experimental Education.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Dai, T., Fechter, T. S., Nelson, F. E., van Boekel, M., & Du, Y. (2021). Development of a tool to assess inference-making and reasoning in biology. Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education, 22(2), [e00159-21].  link >

Cromley, J., & Kunze, A. (2021). Motivational Resilience during COVID-19 across At-Risk Undergraduates. Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education, 22(1).  link >

Cromley, J. G., Kunze, A. J., & Dane, A. P. (2021). Multi-text multi-modal reading processes and comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 71, [101413].  link >

Cromley, J. G., Dai, T., Fechter, T., Van Boekel, M., Nelson, F. E., & Dane, A. (2021). What Cognitive Interviewing Reveals about a New Measure of Undergraduate Biology Reasoning. Journal of Experimental Education, 89(1), 145-168.  link >

Fechter, T., Dai, T., Cromley, J. G., Nelson, F. E., Van Boekel, M., & Du, Y. (2021). Developing a Validity Argument for an Inference-Making and Reasoning Measure for Use in Higher Education. Frontiers in Education, 6, [727539].  link >

Kunze, A., & Cromley, J. G. (2021). Deciding on drawing: the topic matters when using drawing as a science learning strategy. International Journal of Science Education, 43(4), 624-640.  link >

Mara, K. R., Kaplan, A., Balsai, M. J., Cromley, J. G., Perez, T., & Dai, T. (2021). How instructors can enhance biology students' motivation, learning, and grades through brief relevance writing and worked-example interventions. Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education, 22(2), [e0011021].  link >

Cromley, J. G. (2020). Analyzing Strategic Processing: Pros and Cons of Different Methods. In D. L. Dinsmore, L. K. Fryer, & M. M. Parkinson (Eds.), Handbook of Strategies and Strategic Processing (pp. 393-405). Routledge.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Du, Y., & Dane, A. P. (2020). Drawing-to-Learn: Does Meta-Analysis Show Differences Between Technology-Based Drawing and Paper-and-Pencil Drawing? Journal of Science Education and Technology, 29(2), 216-229.  link >

Cromley, J. G. (2020). Learning from Multiple Representations: Roles of Task Interventions and Individual Differences. In P. Van Meter, A. List, D. Lombardi, & P. Kendeou (Eds.), Handbook of Learning from Multiple Representations and Perspectives (pp. 62-75). (Educational Psychology Handbook). Routledge.  link >

Cromley, J. G., & Kunze, A. J. (2020). Metacognition in education: Translational research. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 6(1), 15-20.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Ma, S., Van Boekel, M., & Parpucu Dane, A. (2020). Pickup of Causal Language and Inference During and After Reading Scientific Text. Reading Psychology, 41(3), 157-182.  link >

Kaplan, A., Cromley, J., Perez, T., Dai, T., Mara, K., & Balsai, M. (2020). The Role of Context in Educational RCT Findings: A Call to Redefine “Evidence-Based Practice”. Educational Researcher, 49(4), 285-288.  link >

Woods, S. C., Cromley, J. G., & Hackmann, D. G. (2020). Relationships between the middle school concept and student demographics. Journal of Educational Administration, 58(3), 265-281.  link >

Perez, T., Dai, T., Kaplan, A., Cromley, J. G., Brooks, W. D., White, A. C., Mara, K. R., & Balsai, M. J. (2019). Interrelations among expectancies, task values, and perceived costs in undergraduate biology achievement. Learning and Individual Differences, 72, 26-38.  link >

Cromley, J. G., & Mara, K. (2018). Comparing and contrasting within diagrams: An effective study strategy. In G. Stapleton, F. Bellucci, A. Moktefi, P. Chapman, & S. Perez-Kriz (Eds.), Diagrammatic Representation and Inference - 10th International Conference, Diagrams 2018, Proceedings (pp. 492-499). (Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics); Vol. 10871 LNAI). Springer.  link >

Cromley, J. G. (2018). Introduction to the special issue: Desiderata for a theory of multi-source multi-modal comprehension. Learning and Instruction, 57, 1-4.  link >

Cromley, J. G., & Lawrence, L. E. M. (2018). Multimedia simulations that foster transfer: Findings from a review of the literature. In R. Zheng (Ed.), Strategies for Deep Learning with Digital Technology: Theories and Practices in Education (pp. 93-110). Nova Science Publishers, Inc..

de Oliveira, D. W. D., Lages, F. S., Paiva, S. M., Cromley, J. G., Robinson, P. G., & Cota, L. O. M. (2018). Cross-Cultural Adaptation Of The Brazilian Version Of The Dentine Hypersensitivity Experience Questionnaire (Dheq-15). Brazilian oral research, 32, 1-10.  link >

Kimber, O., Cromley, J. G., & Molnar-Kimber, K. L. (2018). Let your ideas flow: Using flowcharts to convey methods and implications of the results in laboratory exercises, articles, posters, and slide presentations. Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education, 19(1), [1477].  link >

Mendenhall, R., Cross, K. J., Amos, J. R., Clancy, K. B. H., Imoukhuede, P. U. II., & Cromley, J. G. (2018). Intersecting identities of women in engineering. ASEE Annual Conference and Exposition, Conference Proceedings, 2018-June.

Schunn, C. D., Newcombe, N. S., Alfieri, L., Cromley, J. G., Massey, C., & Merlino, J. F. (2018). Using principles of cognitive science to improve science learning in middle school: What works when and for whom? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 32(2), 225-240.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Booth, J. L., Wills, T. W., Chang, B. L., Tran, N., Madeja, M., Shipley, T. F., & Zahner, W. (2017). Relation of Spatial Skills to Calculus Proficiency: A Brief Report. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 19(1), 55-68.  link >

Zahner, W., Dai, T., Cromley, J. G., Wills, T. W., Booth, J. L., Shipley, T. F., & Stepnowski, W. (2017). Coordinating multiple representations of polynomials: What do patterns in students' solution strategies reveal? Learning and Instruction, 49, 131-141.  link >

Chang, B. L., Cromley, J. G., & Tran, N. (2016). Coordinating Multiple Representations in a Reform Calculus Textbook. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 14(8), 1475-1497.  link >

Corso, H. V., Cromley, J. G., Sperb, T., & Salles, J. F. (2016). Modeling the relationship among reading comprehension, intelligence, socioeconomic status, and neuropsychological functions: The mediating role of executive functions. Psychology and Neuroscience, 9(1), 32-45.  link >

Cromley, J. G., & Wills, T. W. (2016). Flexible strategy use by students who learn much versus little from text: Transitions within think-aloud protocols. Journal of Research in Reading, 39(1), 50-71.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Weisberg, S. M., Dai, T., Newcombe, N. S., Schunn, C. D., Massey, C., & Merlino, F. J. (2016). Improving Middle School Science Learning Using Diagrammatic Reasoning. Science Education, 100(6), 1184-1213.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Perez, T., & Dai, T. (2016). Teaching Introductory Statistics: Incorporating Motivation Principles. In M. C. Smith, & N. DeFrates-Densch (Eds.), Challenges and Innovations in Educational Psychology Teaching and Learning Information Age Publishing Inc..

Miller, B. W., Cromley, J. G., & Newcombe, N. S. (2016). Improving diagrammatic reasoning in middle school science using conventions of diagrams instruction. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 32(4), 374-390.  link >

Bergey, B. W., Cromley, J. G., & Newcombe, N. S. (2015). Teaching High School Biology Students to Coordinate Text and Diagrams: Relations with Transfer, Effort, and Spatial Skill. International Journal of Science Education, 37(15), 2476-2502.  link >

Bergey, B. W., Cromley, J. G., Kirchgessner, M. L., & Newcombe, N. S. (2015). Using diagrams versus text for spaced restudy: Effects on learning in 10th grade biology classes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(1), 59-74.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Perez, T., & Kaplan, A. (2015). Undergraduate STEM Achievement and Retention: Cognitive, Motivational, and Institutional Factors and Solutions. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 3(1), 4-11.  link >

Kanno, Y., & Cromley, J. G. (2015). English language learners' pathways to four-year colleges. Teachers College Record, 117(12), [18155].

Perez, T., Bergey, B. W., Dai, T., & Cromley, J. G. (2015). Educational Psychology. In R. L. Cautin, & S. O. Lilienfeld (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Clinical Psychology (pp. 1-6). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd..  link >

Dai, T., & Cromley, J. G. (2014). Changes in implicit theories of ability in biology and dropout from STEM majors: A latent growth curve approach. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(3), 233-247.  link >

Dai, T., & Cromley, J. G. (2014). The match matters: Examining student epistemic preferences in relation to epistemic beliefs about chemistry. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39(3), 262-274.  link >

Perez, T., Cromley, J. G., & Kaplan, A. (2014). The role of identity development, values, and costs in college STEM retention. Journal of Educational Psychology, 106(1), 315-329.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Perez, T., Wills, T. W., Tanaka, J. C., Horvat, E. M. N., & Agbenyega, E. T. B. (2013). Changes in race and sex stereotype threat among diverse STEM students: Relation to grades and retention in the majors. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 38(3), 247-258.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Bergey, B. W., Fitzhugh, S., Newcombe, N., Wills, T. W., Shipley, T. F., & Tanaka, J. C. (2013). Effects of three diagram instruction methods on transfer of diagram comprehension skills: The critical role of inference while learning. Learning and Instruction, 26, 45-58.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Perez, T. C., Fitzhugh, S. L., Newcombe, N. S., Wills, T. W., & Tanaka, J. C. (2013). Improving students diagram comprehension with classroom instruction. Journal of Experimental Education, 81(4), 511-537.  link >

Kanno, Y., & Cromley, J. G. (2013). English Language Learners' Access to and Attainment in Postsecondary Education. TESOL Quarterly, 47(1), 89-121.  link >

Bernacki, M. L., Byrnes, J. P., & Cromley, J. G. (2012). The effects of achievement goals and self-regulated learning behaviors on reading comprehension in technology-enhanced learning environments. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 37(2), 148-161.  link >

Cromley, J. G., & Byrnes, J. P. (2012). Instruction and cognition. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 3(5), 545-553.  link >

Cromley, J., & Azevedo, R. (2011). Measuring strategy use in context with multiple-choice items. Metacognition and Learning, 6(2), 155-177.  link >

Hindman, A. H., Cromley, J. G., Skibbe, L. E., & Miller, A. L. (2011). Conventional and piecewise growth modeling techniques: Applications and implications for investigating head start children's early literacy learning. Evaluation Review, 35(3), 204-239.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Snyder-Hogan, L. E., & Luciw-Dubas, U. A. (2010). Cognitive activities in complex science text and diagrams. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 35(1), 59-74.  link >

Cromley, J. G., Snyder-Hogan, L. E., & Luciw-Dubas, U. A. (2010). Reading Comprehension of Scientific Text: A Domain-Specific Test of the Direct and Inferential Mediation Model of Reading Comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 687-700.  link >

Cromley, J. G., & Azevedo, R. (2009). Locating information within extended hypermedia. Educational Technology Research and Development, 57(3), 287-313.  link >

Cromley, J. G. (2009). Reading achievement and science proficiency: International comparisons from the programme on international student assessment. Reading Psychology, 30(2), 89-118.  link >

Azevedo, R., Moos, D. C., Greene, J. A., Winters, F. I., & Cromley, J. G. (2008). Why is externally-facilitated regulated learning more effective than self-regulated learning with hypermedia? Educational Technology Research and Development, 56(1), 45-72.  link >

Cromley, J. G., & Azevedo, R. (2007). Testing and refining the direct and inferential mediation model of reading comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(2), 311-325.  link >

Azevedo, R., Greene, J. A., Moos, D. C., Winters, F. I., Godbole-Chaudhuri, P., & Cromley, J. G. (2006). Is externally-regulated learning by a human tutor effective in facilitating learning with hypermedia? In ICLS 2006 - International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Proceedings (pp. 16-22). (ICLS 2006 - International Conference of the Learning Sciences, Proceedings; Vol. 1).

Cromley, J. G., & Azevedo, R. (2006). Self-report of reading comprehension strategies: What are we measuring? Metacognition and Learning, 1(3), 229-247.  link >

Azevedo, R., Cromley, J. G., Winters, F. I., Moos, D. C., & Greene, J. A. (2005). Adaptive human scaffolding facilitates adolescents' self-regulated learning with hypermedia. Instructional Science, 33(5-6), 381-412.  link >

Cromley, J. G., & Azevedo, R. (2005). What do reading tutors do? A naturalistic study of more and less experienced tutors in reading. Discourse Processes, 40(2), 83-113.  link >

Azevedo, R., Cromley, J. G., & Seibert, D. (2004). Does adaptive scaffolding facilitate students' ability to regulate their learning with hypermedia? Contemporary Educational Psychology, 29(3), 344-370.  link >

Azevedo, R., & Cromley, J. G. (2004). Does training on self-regulated learning facilitate students' learning with hypermedia? Journal of Educational Psychology, 96(3), 523-535.  link >

Cromley, J. (1992). Some lessons learned from using participatory methods in asbestos worker training. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 22(5), 781-784.  link >

Teaching

Dr. Cromley teaches learning theories (e.g., EPSY 400, 590), research methods (e.g., EPSY 403, 550), and educational statistics (e.g., (EPSY 580, 590). She uses an apprenticeship model with graduate advisees and independent study students, where students contribute to research based on their current skills, and earn authorship in conference papers and journal articles.

Courses

Methods of Educational Inquiry (CI 550) Offers a graduate-level introduction to research in education, including quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods designs and approaches. Key concepts include: identifying a research problem, reviewing the literature, design and analysis, communicating evidence, and the ethics of research. Students should gain the ability to effectively evaluate and critique design/methods sections of research publications; plan and design research studies; and organize a presentation of research to an audience of peers. Synchronous attendance not required. Blackboard/Compass LMS.

Methods of Educational Inquiry (CI 550) Offers a graduate-level introduction to research in education, including quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods designs and approaches. Key concepts include: identifying a research problem, reviewing the literature, design and analysis, communicating evidence, and the ethics of research. Students should gain the ability to effectively evaluate and critique design/methods sections of research publications; plan and design research studies; and organize a presentation of research to an audience of peers. Synchronous attendance required. Blackboard/Compass LMS.

Methods of Educational Inquiry (EPOL 550) Synchronous attendance required. Blackboard/Compass LMS.

Res Methods in Learning Scienc (EPSY 403) This course is an introduction to conducting research in the learning sciences, including how to use theory as a guide to conducting literature reviews and formulating research questions. The course introduces quantitative and qualitative research design, data collection and analysis, and other aspects of research relevant to learning, teaching, and other topics relevant to education. A secondary goal is to better understand research reported in the primary literature as well as in the news media. Assignments will include evaluating research papers and writing a research proposal.

Human Perform & Cogn in Contxt (EPSY 456) Theories and findings from cognitive science and related disciplines concerning human information processing mechanisms and capacities are covered, with an emphasis on how understanding people's perceptual and cognitive strengths and limitations can inform decisions about teaching/training strategies and designing technological environments to suit people's needs and abilities.

Human Perform & Cogn in Contxt (EPSY 456) Theories and findings from cognitive science and related disciplines concerning human information processing mechanisms and capacities are covered, with an emphasis on how understanding people's perceptual and cognitive strengths and limitations can inform decisions about teaching/training strategies and designing technological environments to suit people's needs and abilities. Compass LMS. Synchronous attendance not required.

Human Perform & Cogn in Contxt (EPSY 456) Theories and findings from cognitive science and related disciplines concerning human information processing mechanisms and capacities are covered, with an emphasis on how understanding people's perceptual and cognitive strengths and limitations can inform decisions about teaching/training strategies and designing technological environments to suit people's needs and abilities. Synchronous attendance not required. Compass LMS.

Human Perform & Cogn in Contxt (EPSY 456) Theories and findings from cognitive science and related disciplines concerning human information processing mechanisms and capacities are covered, with an emphasis on how understanding people's perceptual and cognitive strengths and limitations can inform decisions about teaching/training strategies and designing technological environments to suit people's needs and abilities. Synchronous attendance not required. Canvas LMS.

Methods of Educational Inquiry (EPSY 550) Synchronous attendance required. Blackboard/Compass LMS.

Statistical Inference in Educ (EPSY 580) Intermediate statistical methods in education; includes probability theory, distribution theory, interval estimation, hypothesis testing, regression and correlational analysis, and analysis of variance. Students must have taken EPSY 480 or equivalent introductory statistics course.

Statistical Inference in Educ (EPSY 580) Intermediate statistical methods in education; includes probability theory, distribution theory, interval estimation, hypothesis testing, regression and correlational analysis, and analysis of variance. Students must have taken EPSY 480 or equivalent introductory statistics course. No fixed meeting time, assignments are due online on Tuesday mornings.

Statistical Inference in Educ (EPSY 580) Intermediate statistical methods in education; includes probability theory, distribution theory, interval estimation, hypothesis testing, regression and correlational analysis, and analysis of variance. Synchronous attendance required. Canvas LMS.

Secondary Data Analysis (EPSY 590) Seminar in educational psychology; topics relate to the areas of specialization represented by the various divisions within the department. Synchronous attendance not required. Blackboard/Compass LMS. Prerequisite: EPSY 580 or equivalent. Federal and state governments make many large data sets available, covering topics as diverse as student learning, teacher tenure, adolescent science and math proficiency, school funding, adult literacy, census data, and much more. Repositories such as the UIUC IDEALS, Michigan ICPSR and others make research data sets available. Data to answer pressing research questions may have already been collected, but secondary data analysis poses specific challenges. This course provides instruction, practice (SPSS or R, student chooses), and feedback on •IRB/privacy/confidentiality •funding for/workshops on secondary data analysis •using data codebooks •operationalizing constructs with extant items and questionnaires •literature review for secondary data analysis •exploratory factor analysis, reliability, validity •merging files, aggregating, disaggregating, and combining variables

Secondary Data Analysis (EPSY 590) Seminar in educational psychology; topics relate to the areas of specialization represented by the various divisions within the department. Prerequisite: EPSY 580 or equivalent. Federal and state governments make many large data sets available, covering topics as diverse as student learning, teacher tenure, adolescent science and math proficiency, school funding, adult literacy, census data, and much more. Repositories such as the UIUC IDEALS, Michigan ICPSR and others make research data sets available. Data to answer pressing research questions may have already been collected, but secondary data analysis poses specific challenges. This course provides instruction, practice (SPSS or R, student chooses), and feedback on •IRB/privacy/confidentiality •funding for/workshops on secondary data analysis •using data codebooks •operationalizing constructs with extant items and questionnaires •literature review for secondary data analysis •exploratory factor analysis, reliability, validity •merging files, aggregating, disaggregating, and combining variables to identify subgroups •keeping track of data steps •using

Think-alouds and Learning Proc (EPSY 590) Seminar in educational psychology; topics relate to the areas of specialization represented by the various divisions within the department. Title: Think-alouds and learning process data methods and analyses Prerequisite: EPSY 580 Description: Students will learn about, design, collect practice data, code (categorize), score and quantitatively analyze data collected during the learning process. Coding may include cognitive and metacognitive strategy use, motivation, affect, and other variables used to related during-learning processes to post-learning performance.

Secondary Data Analysis (EPSY 590) Seminar in educational psychology; topics relate to the areas of specialization represented by the various divisions within the department. Synchronous attendance required. Blackboard/Compass LMS. Prerequisite: EPSY 580 or equivalent. Federal and state governments make many large data sets available, covering topics as diverse as student learning, teacher tenure, adolescent science and math proficiency, school funding, adult literacy, census data, and much more. Repositories such as the UIUC IDEALS, Michigan ICPSR and others make research data sets available. Data to answer pressing research questions may have already been collected, but secondary data analysis poses specific challenges. This course provides instruction, practice (SPSS or R, student chooses), and feedback on •IRB/privacy/confidentiality •funding for/workshops on secondary data analysis •using data codebooks •operationalizing constructs with extant items and questionnaires •literature review for secondary data analysis •exploratory factor analysis, reliability, validity •merging files, aggregating, disaggregating, and combining variables to i

Methods of Educational Inquiry (SPED 550) Synchronous attendance required. Blackboard/Compass LMS.