College of Education

About Us Admissions & Academics Research & Engagement Departments & Faculty Current Students

James Rounds


Vocational interest and value development in adolescence and adulthood
Applied psychological measurement (interest, values, personality traits, ability)
Person-Environment fit theory and assessment

Key Professional Appointments

  • Professor, Educational Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
  • Professor, Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
  • Professor, Kinesiology and Community Health, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Awards, Honors, Associations

Association for Psychological Science Fellow, Association for Psychological Science, 2011

Research & Service

Vocational interests and how they change over the life span. Research examines the structure of interests, how that structure develops and changes over the life course, and the reciprocal influences among personality traits, interests, and abilities. Also, career development in adulthood, assessment of interests, personality traits and work values.


Zheng, A., Hoff, K. A., Hanna, A., Einarsdóttir, S., Rounds, J., & Briley, D. A. (2024). Job characteristics and personality change in young adulthood: A 12-year longitudinal study and replication. Journal of Personality, 92(1), 298-315.  link >

Roemer, L., Lewis, P., & Rounds, J. (2023). The German O*NET Interest Profiler Short Form. Psychological Test Adaptation and Development, 4(1), 156-167.  link >

Roemer, L., Stoll, G., Rounds, J., & Ziegler, M. (2023). Why does the trait-state relation in vocational interests differ from that in personality? Exploring interest variability in daily life. Journal of Research in Personality, 105, Article 104386.  link >

Su, R., Putka, D. J., & Rounds, J. (2023). Computer science work and interest profiles: stereotype vs. realities. Scientific reports, 13(1), Article 21910.  link >

Youn, J., Napolitano, C. M., Han, D., Lee, W., & Rounds, J. (2023). A meta-analysis of the relations between parental support and children's career self-efficacy in South Korea and the US. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 141, Article 103839.  link >

Chu, C., Russell, M. T., Hoff, K. A., Jonathan Phan, W. M., & Rounds, J. (2022). What Do Interest Inventories Measure? The Convergence and Content Validity of Four RIASEC Inventories. Journal of Career Assessment, 30(4), 776-801.  link >

Hoff, K. A., Chu, C., Einarsdóttir, S., Briley, D. A., Hanna, A., & Rounds, J. (2022). Adolescent vocational interests predict early career success: Two 12-year longitudinal studies. Applied Psychology, 71(1), 49-75.  link >

Hoff, K., Van Egdom, D., Napolitano, C., Hanna, A., & Rounds, J. (2022). Dream Jobs and Employment Realities: How Adolescents’ Career Aspirations Compare to Labor Demands and Automation Risks. Journal of Career Assessment, 30(1), 134-156.  link >

Hyland, W. E., Hoff, K. A., & Rounds, J. (2022). Interest–Ability Profiles: An Integrative Approach to Knowledge Acquisition. Journal of Intelligence, 10(3), Article 43.  link >

Jones, K. S., Newman, D. A., Su, R., & Rounds, J. (2022). Vocational Interests and Adverse Impact: How Attraction and Selection on Vocational Interests Relate to Adverse Impact Potential. Journal of Applied Psychology, 107(4), 604–627.  link >

Hanna, A., Briley, D., Einarsdóttir, S., Hoff, K., & Rounds, J. (2021). Fit gets better: A longitudinal study of changes in interest fit in educational and work environments. European Journal of Personality, 35(4), 557-580.  link >

Hoff, K. A., Einarsdóttir, S., Chu, C., Briley, D. A., & Rounds, J. (2021). Personality Changes Predict Early Career Outcomes: Discovery and Replication in 12-Year Longitudinal Studies. Psychological Science, 32(1), 64-79.  link >

Jones, K. S., Newman, D. A., Su, R., & Rounds, J. (2021). Black-White differences in vocational interests: Meta-analysis and boundary conditions. Journal of Business and Psychology, 36(4), 589-607.  link >

Nye, C. D., Prasad, J., & Rounds, J. (2021). The effects of vocational interests on motivation, satisfaction, and academic performance: Test of a mediated model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 127, Article 103583.  link >

Stoll, G., Rieger, S., Nagengast, B., Trautwein, U., & Rounds, J. (2021). Stability and Change in Vocational Interests After Graduation From High School: A Six-Wave Longitudinal Study. Journal of personality and social psychology, 120(4), 1091–1116.  link >

Wiegand, J. P., Drasgow, F., & Rounds, J. (2021). Misfit matters: A re-examination of interest fit and job satisfaction. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 125, Article 103524.  link >

Einarsdóttir, S., & Rounds, J. (2020). A Quantitative Review of Gender Differences in Vocational Interests in Iceland: Pervasive and Persistent. Nordic Journal of Transitions, Careers and Guidance, 1(1), 10-26.  link >

Hanna, A., & Rounds, J. (2020). How accurate are interest inventories? A quantitative review of career choice hit rates. Psychological bulletin, 146(9), 765-796.  link >

Hoff, K. A., Song, Q. C., Einarsdóttir, S., Briley, D. A., & Rounds, J. (2020). Developmental structure of personality and interests: A four-wave, 8-year longitudinal study. Journal of personality and social psychology, 118(5), 1044-1064.  link >

Hoff, K. A., Song, Q. C., Wee, C. J. M., Phan, W. M. J., & Rounds, J. (2020). Interest fit and job satisfaction: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 123, Article 103503.  link >

Kirkendall, C. D., Nye, C. D., Rounds, J., Drasgow, F., Chernyshenko, O. S., & Stark, S. (2020). Adaptive vocational interest diagnostic: Informing and improving the job assignment process. Military Psychology, 32(1), 91-100.  link >

Napolitano, C. M., Hoff, K. A., Ming, C. W. J., Tu, N., & Rounds, J. (2020). Great expectations: Adolescents' intentional self-regulation predicts career aspiration and expectation consistency. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 120, Article 103423.  link >

Stoll, G., Einarsdóttir, S., Song, Q. C., Ondish, P., Sun, J. J., & Rounds, J. (2020). The Roles of Personality Traits and Vocational Interests in Explaining What People Want Out of Life. Journal of Research in Personality, 86, Article 103939.  link >

Hanna, A., Gregory, C., Lewis, P. M., & Rounds, J. (2019). International Career Assessment Using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET). In J. A. Athanasou, & H. N. Perera (Eds.), International Handbook of Career Guidance (2 ed., pp. 581-612). Springer.  link >

Nye, C. D., & Rounds, J. (2019). Introduction. In C. D. Nye, & J. Rounds (Eds.), Vocational Interests in the Workplace: Rethinking Behavior at Work (pp. 1-10). (SIOP Organizational Frontiers Series). Routledge.  link >

Nye, C. D., & Rounds, J. (Eds.) (2019). Vocational Interests in the Workplace: Rethinking Behavior at Work. (SIOP Organizational Frontiers Series). Routledge.  link >

Phan, W. M. J., Amrhein, R., Rounds, J., & Lewis, P. (2019). Contextualizing Interest Scales With Emojis: Implications for Measurement and Validity. Journal of Career Assessment, 27(1), 114-133.  link >

Su, R., Stoll, G., & Rounds, J. (2019). The nature of interests: Toward a unifying theory of trait-state interest dynamics. In Vocational Interests in the Workplace: Rethinking Behavior at Work (pp. 11-38). Taylor and Francis.  link >

Su, R., Tay, L., Liao, H. Y., Zhang, Q., & Rounds, J. (2019). Toward a dimensional model of vocational interests. Journal of Applied Psychology, 104(5), 690-714.  link >

Hoff, K. A., Briley, D. A., Wee, C. J. M., & Rounds, J. (2018). Normative changes in interests from adolescence to adulthood: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychological bulletin, 144(4), 426-451.  link >

Nye, C. D., Perlus, J. G., & Rounds, J. (2018). Do ornithologists flock together? Examining the homogeneity of interests in occupations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 107, 195-208.  link >

Phan, W. M. J., & Rounds, J. (2018). Examining the duality of Holland's RIASEC types: Implications for measurement and congruence. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 106, 22-36.  link >

Nye, C. D., Su, R., Rounds, J., & Drasgow, F. (2017). Interest congruence and performance: Revisiting recent meta-analytic findings. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 98, 138-151.  link >

Liao, H. Y., Hong, Y. Y., & Rounds, J. (2016). Perception of Subtle Racism: The Role of Group Status and Legitimizing Ideologies 1ψ 7. Counseling Psychologist, 44(2), 237-266.  link >

Su, R., & Rounds, J. (2015). All STEM fields are not created equal: People and things interests explain gender disparities across STEM fields. Frontiers in Psychology, 6(FEB), Article 189.  link >

Su, R., Murdock, C., & Rounds, J. (2015). Person-environment fit. In P. J. Hartung, M. L. Savickas, & W. B. Walsh (Eds.), APA handbook of career intervention: Foundations (Vol. 1, pp. 81-98). American Psychological Association.  link >

Rounds, J., & Su, R. (2014). The Nature and Power of Interests. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 23(2), 98-103.  link >

Einarsdóttir, S., Eyjólfsdóttir, K. Ó., & Rounds, J. (2013). Development of indigenous basic interest scales: Re-structuring the Icelandic interest space. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 82(2), 105-115.  link >

Jin, J., & Rounds, J. (2012). Stability and change in work values: A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 80(2), 326-339.  link >

Nye, C. D., Su, R., Rounds, J., & Drasgow, F. (2012). Vocational Interests and Performance: A Quantitative Summary of Over 60 Years of Research. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7(4), 384-403.  link >

Armstrong, P. I., Su, R., & Rounds, J. (2011). Vocational Interests: The Road Less Traveled. In The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of Individual Differences (pp. 608-631). Wiley.  link >

Tay, L., Su, R., & Rounds, J. (2011). People-things and data-ideas: Bipolar dimensions? Journal of Counseling Psychology, 58(3), 424-440.  link >

Armstrong, P. I., & Rounds, J. (2010). Integrating individual differences in career assessment: The atlas model of individual differences and the strong ring. Career Development Quarterly, 59(2), 143-153.  link >

Armstrong, P. I., Fouad, N. A., Rounds, J., & Hubert, L. (2010). Quantifying and interpreting group differences in interest profiles. Journal of Career Assessment, 18(2), 115-132.  link >

Einarsdóttir, S., Rounds, J., & Su, R. (2010). Holland in Iceland revisited: An emic approach to evaluating U.S. vocational interest models. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 57(3), 361-367.  link >

Einarsdóttir, S., & Rounds, J. (2009). Gender bias and construct validity in vocational interest measurement: Differential item functioning in the Strong Interest Inventory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 295-307.  link >

Moyer, C. A., & Rounds, J. (2009). The attitudes toward massage (ATOM) scale: Reliability, validity, and associated findings. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies, 13(1), 22-33.  link >

Su, R., Rounds, J., & Armstrong, P. I. (2009). Men and Things, Women and People: A Meta-Analysis of Sex Differences in Interests. Psychological bulletin, 135(6), 859-884.  link >

Tay, L., Drasgow, F., Rounds, J., & Williams, B. A. (2009). Fitting Measurement Models to Vocational Interest Data: Are Dominance Models Ideal? Journal of Applied Psychology, 94(5), 1287-1304.  link >

Armstrong, P. I., Allison, W., & Rounds, J. (2008). Development and initial validation of brief public domain RIASEC marker scales. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(2), 287-299.  link >

Armstrong, P. I., Day, S. X., McVay, J. P., & Rounds, J. (2008). Holland's RIASEC Model as an Integrative Framework for Individual Differences. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(1), 1-18.  link >

Armstrong, P. I., & Rounds, J. (2008). Linking leisure interests to the RIASEC world of work map. Journal of Career Development, 35(1), 5-22.  link >

Armstrong, P. I., Rounds, J., & Hubert, L. (2008). Re-conceptualizing the past: Historical data in vocational interest research. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72(3), 284-297.  link >

Liao, H. Y., Armstrong, P. I., & Rounds, J. (2008). Development and initial validation of public domain Basic Interest Markers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 73(1), 159-183.  link >

Deng, C. P., Armstrong, P. I., & Rounds, J. (2007). The fit of Holland's RIASEC model to US occupations. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 71(1), 1-22.  link >

Low, K. S. D., & Rounds, J. (2007). Interest change and continuity from early adolescence to middle adulthood. International Journal for Educational and Vocational Guidance, 7(1), 23-36.  link >

Low, K. S. D., Radhakrishnan, P., Schneider, K. T., & Rounds, J. (2007). The experiences of bystanders of workplace ethnic harassment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37(10), 2261-2297.  link >

Liao, H. Y., Rounds, J., & Klein, A. G. (2005). A test of Cramer's (1999) help-seeking model and acculturation effects with Asian and Asian American college students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(3), 400-411.  link >

Low, K. S. D., Yoon, M., Roberts, B. W., & Rounds, J. (2005). The stability of vocational interests from early adolescence to middle adulthood: A quantitative review of longitudinal studies. Psychological bulletin, 131(5), 713-737.  link >

Mount, M. K., Barrick, M. R., Scullen, S. M., & Rounds, J. (2005). Higher-order dimensions of the Big Five personality traits and the Big Six vocational interest types. Personnel Psychology, 58(2), 447-478.  link >

Armstrong, P. I., Donnay, D. A. C., Smith, T. J., & Rounds, J. (2004). The strong ring: A basic interest model of occupational structure. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51(3), 299-313.  link >

Moyer, C. A., Rounds, J., & Hannum, J. W. (2004). A Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy Research. Psychological bulletin, 130(1), 3-18.  link >

Armstrong, P. I., Hubert, L., & Rounds, J. (2003). Circular unidimensional scaling: A new look at group differences in interest structure. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 50(3), 297-308.  link >

Einarsdóttir, S., Rounds, J., Ægisdóttir, S., & Gerstein, L. H. (2002). The structure of vocational interests in Iceland: Examining Holland's and Gati's RIASEC models. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 18(1), 85-95.  link >

Baker, J. G., Rounds, J. B., & Zevon, M. A. (2000). A Comparison of Graded Response and Rasch Partial Credit Models with Subjective Well-Being. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 25(3), 253-270.  link >

Chan, K. Y., Rounds, J., & Drasgow, F. (2000). The Relation between Vocational Interests and the Motivation to Lead. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 57(2), 226-245.  link >

Einarsdoóttir, S., & Rounds, J. (2000). Application of Three Dimensions of Vocational Interests to the Strong Interest Inventory. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(3), 363-379.  link >

Rounds, J., McKenna, M. C., Hubert, L., & Day, S. X. (2000). Tinsley on Holland: A Misshapen Argument. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(2), 205-215.  link >

McKenna, M. C., Zevon, M. A., Corn, B., & Rounds, J. (1999). Psychosocial factors and the development of breast cancer: A meta- analysis. Health Psychology, 18(5), 520-531.  link >

Shivy, V. A., Rounds, J., & Jones, L. E. (1999). Applying vocational interest models to naturally occurring occupational perceptions. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 46(2), 207-217.  link >

Day, S. X., Rounds, J., & Swaney, K. (1998). The structure of vocational interests for diverse racial-ethnic groups. Psychological Science, 9(1), 40-44.  link >

Day, S. X., & Rounds, J. (1998). Universality of Vocational Interest Structure among Racial and Ethnic Minorities. American Psychologist, 53(7), 728-736.  link >

Anderson, M. Z., Tracey, T. J. G., & Rounds, J. (1997). Examining the invariance of Holland's vocational interest model across Gender. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 50(3), 349-364.  link >

Day, S. X., & Rounds, J. (1997). "A little more than kin, and less than kind": Basic interests in vocational research and career counseling. Career Development Quarterly, 45(3), 207-220.  link >

Tracey, T. J. G., & Rounds, J. B. (1997). Circular structure of vocational interests. In R. Plutchik, & H. R. Conte (Eds.), Circumplex models of personality and emotions (pp. 183-201). American Psychological Association.  link >

Rounds, J., & Tracey, T. J. (1996). Cross-Cultural Structural Equivalence of RIASEC Models and Measures. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(3), 310-329.  link >

Ryan, J. M., Tracey, T. J. G., & Rounds, J. (1996). Generalizability of Holland's Structure of Vocational Interests Across Ethnicity, Gender, and Socioeconomic Status. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43(3), 330-337.  link >

Schneider, P. L., Ryan, J. M., Tracey, T. J. G., & Rounds, J. (1996). Examining the relation between Holland's RIASEC model and the interpersonal circle. Measurement and Evaluation in Counseling and Development, 29(3), 123-133.

Tracey, T. J. G., Rounds, J., & Gurtman, M. (1996). Examination of the general factor with the interpersonal circumplex structure: Application to the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 31(4), 441-466.  link >

Tracey, T. J. G., & Rounds, J. (1996). The spherical representation of vocational interests. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 48(1), 3-41.  link >

Baker, J. G., Rounds, J., & Carson, C. A. (1995). Monitoring in methadone maintenance treatment. Substance Use and Misuse, 30(9), 1177-1185.  link >

Tracey, T. J. G., & Rounds, J. (1995). The Arbitrary Nature of Holland's RIASEC Types: A Concentric-Circles Structure. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 42(4), 431-439.  link >

Baker, J. G., Zevon, M. A., & Rounds, J. B. (1994). Differences in positive and negative affect dimensions: Latent trait analysis. Personality and Individual Differences, 17(2), 161-167.  link >

Tracey, T. J., & Rounds, J. (1994). An examination of the structure of roe′s eight interest fields. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 44(3), 279-296.  link >

Rounds, J., & Zevon, M. A. (1993). Cancer stereotypes: A multidimensional scaling analysis. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 16(5), 485-496.  link >

Rounds, J., & Tracey, T. J. (1993). Prediger's Dimensional Representation of Holland's RIASEC Circumplex. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(6), 875-890.  link >

Tracey, T. J., & Rounds, J. (1993). Evaluating Holland's and Gati's vocational-interest models: A structural meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 113(2), 229-246.

Rounds, J., Tracey, T. J., & Hubert, L. (1992). Methods for evaluating vocational interest structural hypotheses. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 40(2), 239-259.  link >

Tracey, T. J., & Rounds, J. (1992). Evaluating the RIASEC circumplex using high-point codes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 41(3), 295-311.  link >

Keitel, M. A., Zevon, M. A., Rounds, J. B., Petrelli, N. J., & Karakousis, C. (1990). Spouse adjustment to cancer surgery: Distress and coping responses. Journal of Surgical Oncology, 43(3), 148-153.  link >

Rounds, J. (1990). The comparative and combined utility of work value and interest data in career counseling with adults. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 37(1), 32-45.  link >

Fitzgerald, L. F., & Rounds, J. B. (1989). Vocational behavior, 1988: A critical analysis. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 35(2), 105-163.  link >

Rounds, J. B., & Erdahl, P. (1988). Nuclear locus of control scales: Information on development, reliability, and validity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 48(2), 387-395.  link >

Rounds, J. B., Dawis, R., & Lofquist, L. H. (1987). Measurement of person-environment fit and prediction of satisfaction in the theory of work adjustment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 31(3), 297-318.  link >

DAVISON, MARK. L., RICHARDS, P. SCOTT., & ROUNDS, JAMES. B. (1986). Multidimensional Scaling in Counseling Research and Practice. Journal of Counseling & Development, 65(4), 178-184.  link >

Rounds, J. B., & Zevon, M. A. (1983). Multidimensional Scaling Research in Vocational Psychology. Applied Psychological Measurement, 7(4), 491-510.  link >

Rounds, J., & Hendel, D. D. (1980). Measurement and dimensionality of mathematics anxiety. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 27(2), 138-149.  link >

Rounds, J. B., & Dawis, R. V. (1979). Factor analysis of Strong Vocational Interest Blank items. Journal of Applied Psychology, 64(2), 132-143.  link >

Rounds, J. B., Dawis, R. V., & Lofquist, L. H. (1979). Life history correlates of vocational needs for a female adult sample. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 26(6), 487-496.  link >

Rounds, J. B., Davison, M. L., & Dawis, R. (1979). The fit between Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory General Occupational Themes and Holland's hexagonal model. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 15(3), 303-315.  link >


personality, intellectual, interest, value assessment, work psychology


EPSY 220: Career Theory and Practice (EPSY 220) Various behavioral science theories will be covered (e.g., person-environment interaction, decision-making, group dynamics, stereotype threat, personality traits). Discussions of research findings to applied career practices will also be included. Students will develop a working-knowledge of these theories through interactive lectures, guided class discussions, case-based readings, and group activities that require them to think critically and flexibly about theory in order to generate solutions for real-world problems.

EPSY 511: Vocational Psychology Theories and Assessment (EPSY 511) Study of vocational psychology theories, assessment, decision-making, and the job search process; includes an historical overview of the development field. The course links theory with practice, as students engage in the interpretation of vocational assessments, examine relevant ethical standards, and discuss their application.

EPSY 590: Advanced Seminar in Educational Psychology (EPSY 590) Seminar in educational psychology; topics relate to the areas of specialization represented by the various divisions within the department.