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Hua-hua Chang

Biography

Professor Chang's research has focused primarily on improving large scale assessments, specifically on issues emerged from the K-12 accountability testing. His research interests are broad, encompassing both theoretical development and applied methodologies, including Computerized Adaptive Testing, Differential Item Functioning, Cognitive Diagnosis, and asymptotic properties in IRT. Many of his manuscripts were published in top-tier journals, ranging from very theoretical, such as Annals of Statistics, to very applied, such as Journal of Educational Measurement. He is a past President of the Psychometric Society (2012-2013), a Fellow of American Educational Research Association, and a Fellow of American Statistical Association.

Key Professional Appointments

  • Professor Emeritus, Educational Psychology, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
  • Professor Emeritus, Center for East Asian and Pacific Studies, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign
Awards, Honors, Associations

E.F. Lindquist Award, American Educational Research Association/American College Testing, 2017

AERA Division D Award for Significant Contribution to Educational Measurement and Research Methodology, American Educational Research Association, 2011

AERA Fellow, American Educational Research Association, 2010

Fulbright Specialist Program Award, United States Department of State, 2005

Research & Service

Professor Chang's research has focused primarily on improving large scale assessments, specifically on issues emerged from the K-12 accountability testing. His research interests are broad, encompassing both theoretical development and applied methodologies, including Computerized Adaptive Testing, Differential Item Functioning, Cognitive Diagnosis, and asymptotic properties in IRT.

Publications

Arthur, D., & Chang, H. H. (Accepted/In press). DINA-BAG: A Bagging Algorithm for DINA Model Parameter Estimation in Small Samples. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics.  link >

Du, Y., Zhang, S., & Chang, H. H. (2023). Compromised item detection: A Bayesian change-point perspective: A Bayesian change-point perspective. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 76(1), 131-153.  link >

Li, X., Xu, H., Zhang, J., & Chang, H. H. (2023). Deep Reinforcement Learning for Adaptive Learning Systems. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 48(2), 220-243.  link >

Wu, X., Zhang, Y., Wu, R., & Chang, H. H. (2022). A comparative study on cognitive diagnostic assessment of mathematical key competencies and learning trajectories: ——PISA Data Analysis Based on 19, 454 Students from 8 Countries. Current Psychology, 41(11), 7854-7866.  link >

Wu, T., Guo, S., & Chang, H. H. (2022). Modeling Student’s Response Time in an Attribute Balanced Cognitive Diagnostic Adaptive Testing. In M. Wiberg, D. Molenaar, J. González, J.-S. Kim, & H. Hwang (Eds.), Quantitative Psychology - The 86th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, 2021 (pp. 299-312). (Springer Proceedings in Mathematics and Statistics; Vol. 393). Springer.  link >

Zhu, Z., Arthur, D., & Chang, H. H. (2022). A new person-fit method based on machine learning in CDM in education. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 75(3), 616-637.  link >

Chang, H. H., Wang, C., & Zhang, S. (2021). Statistical Applications in Educational Measurement. Annual Review of Statistics and Its Application, 8, 439-461.  link >

Li, X., Xu, H., Zhang, J., & Chang, H. H. (2021). Optimal Hierarchical Learning Path Design With Reinforcement Learning. Applied Psychological Measurement, 45(1), 54-70.  link >

Wu, X., Wu, R., Zhang, Y., Arthur, D., & Chang, H. H. (2021). Research on construction method of learning paths and learning progressions based on cognitive diagnosis assessment. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy and Practice, 28(5-6), 657-675.  link >

Kang, H. A., Zheng, Y., & Chang, H. H. (2020). Online Calibration of a Joint Model of Item Responses and Response Times in Computerized Adaptive Testing. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 45(2), 175-208.  link >

Li, X., Zhang, J., & Chang, H. H. (2020). Look-ahead content balancing method in variable-length computerized classification testing. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 73(1), 88-108.  link >

Wu, X., Wu, R., Chang, H. H., Kong, Q., & Zhang, Y. (2020). International Comparative Study on PISA Mathematics Achievement Test Based on Cognitive Diagnostic Models. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, Article 2230.  link >

Yang, J., Chang, H. H., Tao, J., & Shi, N. (2020). Stratified Item Selection Methods in Cognitive Diagnosis Computerized Adaptive Testing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 44(5), 346-361.  link >

Zhang, S., & Chang, H. H. (2020). A multilevel logistic hidden Markov model for learning under cognitive diagnosis. Behavior Research Methods, 52(1), 408-421.  link >

Choe, E. M., & Chang, H. H. (2019). The Asymptotic Distribution of Average Test Overlap Rate in Computerized Adaptive Testing. Psychometrika, 84(4), 1129-1151.  link >

Du, Y., Li, A., & Chang, H. H. (2019). Utilizing Response Time in On-the-Fly Multistage Adaptive Testing. In M. Wiberg, D. Molenaar, J. González, S. Culpepper, & R. Janssen (Eds.), Quantitative Psychology - 83rd Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, 2018 (pp. 107-117). (Springer Proceedings in Mathematics and Statistics; Vol. 265). Springer.  link >

Lin, C. J., & Chang, H. H. (2019). Item Selection Criteria With Practical Constraints in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 79(2), 335-357.  link >

Tu, D., Wang, S., Cai, Y., Douglas, J., & Chang, H. H. (2019). Cognitive Diagnostic Models With Attribute Hierarchies: Model Estimation With a Restricted Q-Matrix Design. Applied Psychological Measurement, 43(4), 255-271.  link >

Wang, S., Fellouris, G., & Chang, H. H. (2019). Statistical Foundations for Computerized Adaptive Testing with Response Revision. Psychometrika, 84(2), 375-394.  link >

Yu, X., Cheng, Y., & Chang, H. H. (2019). Recent Developments in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing (CD-CAT): A Comprehensive Review. In Methodology of Educational Measurement and Assessment (pp. 307-331). (Methodology of Educational Measurement and Assessment). Springer.  link >

Chen, Y., & Chang, H. H. (2018). Psychometrics Help Learning: From Assessment to Learning. Applied Psychological Measurement, 42(1), 3-4.  link >

Choe, E. M., Kern, J. L., & Chang, H. H. (2018). Optimizing the Use of Response Times for Item Selection in Computerized Adaptive Testing. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 43(2), 135-158.  link >

Choe, E. M., Zhang, J., & Chang, H. H. (2018). Sequential Detection of Compromised Items Using Response Times in Computerized Adaptive Testing. Psychometrika, 83(3), 650-673.  link >

Kang, H. A., Su, Y. H., & Chang, H. H. (2018). A note on monotonicity of item response functions for ordered polytomous item response theory models. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 71(3), 523-535.  link >

Morphew, J. W., Mestre, J. P., Kang, H. A., Chang, H. H., & Fabry, G. (2018). Using computer adaptive testing to assess physics proficiency and improve exam performance in an introductory physics course. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 14(2), Article 020110.  link >

Wang, C., & Chang, H. H. (2018). Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment. In Handbook of Item Response Theory: Three Volume Set (Vol. 1-3, pp. 329-347). CRC Press.  link >

Chen, P., Wang, C., Xin, T., & Chang, H. H. (2017). Developing new online calibration methods for multidimensional computerized adaptive testing. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 70(1), 81-117.  link >

Kang, H. A., Zhang, S., & Chang, H. H. (2017). Dual-Objective Item Selection Criteria in Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing. Journal of Educational Measurement, 54(2), 165-183.  link >

Kang, H. A., Lu, Y., & Chang, H. H. (2017). IRT Item Parameter Scaling for Developing New Item Pools. Applied Measurement in Education, 30(1), 1-15.  link >

Wang, C., & Chang, H. H. (2017). Cognitive diagnostic assessment. In Applications (Vol. 3, pp. 329-347). CRC Press.

Wang, S., Fellouris, G., & Chang, H. H. (2017). Computerized adaptive testing that allows for response revision: Design and asymptotic theory. Statistica Sinica, 27(4), 1987-2010.  link >

Chang, H. H., Wang, C., & Ying, Z. (2016). Information Theory and Its Application to Testing. In W. J. van der Linden (Ed.), Handbook of Item Response Theory: Statistical Tools (Vol. 2, pp. 105-123). CRC Press.  link >

Kang, H. A., & Chang, H. H. (2016). Parameter Drift Detection in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing Based on Informational Distance/Divergence Measures. Applied Psychological Measurement, 40(7), 534-550.  link >

Wang, S., Lin, H., Chang, H. H., & Douglas, J. (2016). Hybrid Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Group Sequential Design to Fully Sequential Design. Journal of Educational Measurement, 53(1), 45-62.  link >

Zhang, S., & Chang, H. H. (2016). From smart testing to smart learning: how testing technology can assist the new generation of education. International Journal of Smart Technology and Learning, 1(1), 67-92.  link >

Zheng, C., & Chang, H. H. (2016). High-Efficiency Response Distribution–Based Item Selection Algorithms for Short-Length Cognitive Diagnostic Computerized Adaptive Testing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 40(8), 608-624.  link >

Ali, U. S., Chang, H., & Anderson, C. J. (2015). Location Indices for Ordinal Polytomous Items Based on Item Response Theory. ETS Research Report Series, 2015(2), 1-13.  link >

Chang, H. H. (2015). Psychometrics Behind Computerized Adaptive Testing. Psychometrika, 80(1), 1-20.  link >

Guo, R., Zheng, Y., & Chang, H. H. (2015). A Stepwise Test Characteristic Curve Method to Detect Item Parameter Drift. Journal of Educational Measurement, 52(3), 280-300.  link >

Meng, X. B., Tao, J., & Chang, H. H. (2015). A conditional joint modeling approach for locally dependent item responses and response times. Journal of Educational Measurement, 52(1), 1-27.  link >

Zheng, Y., & Chang, H. H. (2015). On-the-Fly Assembled Multistage Adaptive Testing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 39(2), 104-118.  link >

Ali, U. S., & Chang, H. (2014). An Item-Driven Adaptive Design for Calibrating Pretest Items. ETS Research Report Series, 2014(2), 1-12.  link >

Cheng, Y., & Chang, H.-H. (Eds.) (2014). Advancing Methodologies to Support Both Summative and Formative Assessments. (Chinese American Educational Research and Development Association Book Series). Information Age Publishing Inc.

Liu, H., You, X., Wang, W., Ding, S., & Chang, H.-H. (2014). Large-Scale Implementation of Computerized Adaptive Testing with Cognitive Diagnosis in China. In Y. Cheng, & H.-H. Chang (Eds.), Advancing Methodologies to Support Both Summative and Formative Assessments (pp. 245-262). (Chinese American Educational Research and Development Association Book Series). Information Age Publishing Inc..

McGlohen, M., Miller, G. E., & Chang, H.-H. (2014). An Application of the Fusion Cognitive Diagnostic Model to a Large-Scale State Assessment. In Y. Cheng, & H.-H. Chang (Eds.), Advancing Methodologies to Support Both Summative and Formative Assessments (pp. 263-284). (Chinese American Educational Research and Development Association Book Series). Information Age Publishing Inc..

Tao, J., & Chang, H.-H. (2014). Weighted Estimation Methods for Mixed-Type Tests. In Y. Cheng, & H.-H. Chang (Eds.), Advancing Methodologies to Support Both Summative and Formative Assessments (pp. 107-122). (Chinese American Educational Research and Development Association Book Series). Information Age Publishing Inc..

Wang, C., Zheng, C., & Chang, H. H. (2014). An Enhanced Approach to Combine Item Response Theory With Cognitive Diagnosis in Adaptive Testing. Journal of Educational Measurement, 51(4), 358-380.  link >

Wang, C., Zheng, Y., & Chang, H. (2014). Does Standard Deviation Matter? Using "Standard Deviation" to Quantify Security of Multistage Testing. Psychometrika, 79(1), 154-174.  link >

Zheng, Y., & Chang, H.-H. (2014). Multistage Testing, On-the-Fly Multistage Testing, and Beyond. In Y. Cheng, & H.-H. Chang (Eds.), Advancing Methodologies to Support Both Summative and Formative Assessments (pp. 21-40). (Chinese American Educational Research and Development Association Book Series). Information Age Publishing Inc..

Zheng, Y., Wang, C., Culbertson, M. J., & Chang, H. H. (2014). Overview of Test Assembly Methods in Multistage Testing. In D. Yan, A. A. von Davier, & C. Lewis (Eds.), Computerized Multistage Testing: Theory and Applications (pp. 87-99). CRC Press.  link >

Cheng, Y., Chen, P., Qian, J., & Chang, H. H. (2013). Equated Pooled Booklet Method in DIF Testing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 37(4), 276-288.  link >

Liu, H. Y., You, X. F., Wang, W. Y., Ding, S. L., & Chang, H. H. (2013). The Development of Computerized Adaptive Testing with Cognitive Diagnosis for an English Achievement Test in China. Journal of Classification, 30(2), 152-172.  link >

Wang, C., Fan, Z., Chang, H. H., & Douglas, J. A. (2013). A Semiparametric Model for Jointly Analyzing Response Times and Accuracy in Computerized Testing. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 38(4), 381-417.  link >

Wang, C., Chang, H. H., & Boughton, K. A. (2013). Deriving Stopping Rules for Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 37(2), 99-122.  link >

Wang, C., Chang, H. H., & Douglas, J. A. (2013). The linear transformation model with frailties for the analysis of item response times. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 66(1), 144-168.  link >

Zheng, Y., Chang, C. H., & Chang, H. H. (2013). Content-balancing strategy in bifactor computerized adaptive patient-reported outcome measurement. Quality of Life Research, 22(3), 491-499.  link >

Chang, H.-H. (2012). Making Computerized Adaptive Testing Diagnostic Tools for Schools. In R. W. Lissitz, & H. Jiao (Eds.), Computers and Their Impact on State Assessments (The MARCES Book Series). Information Age Publishing Inc..

Chang, H. H. (2012). New Editor's Statement. Applied Psychological Measurement, 36(8), 631.  link >

Chen, P. H., Chang, H. H., & Wu, H. (2012). Item Selection for the Development of Parallel Forms From an IRT-Based Seed Test Using a Sampling and Classification Approach. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 72(6), 933-953.  link >

Chen, P., Xin, T., Wang, C., & Chang, H. H. (2012). Online Calibration Methods for the DINA Model with Independent Attributes in CD-CAT. Psychometrika, 77(2), 201-222.  link >

Cui, Y., Gierl, M. J., & Chang, H. H. (2012). Estimating Classification Consistency and Accuracy for Cognitive Diagnostic Assessment. Journal of Educational Measurement, 49(1), 19-38.  link >

Fan, Z., Wang, C., Chang, H. H., & Douglas, J. (2012). Utilizing Response Time Distributions for Item Selection in CAT. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 37(5), 655-670.  link >

Sun, S. S., Tao, J., Chang, H. H., & Shi, N. Z. (2012). Weighted Maximum-a-Posteriori Estimation in Tests Composed of Dichotomous and Polytomous Items. Applied Psychological Measurement, 36(4), 271-290.  link >

Tao, J., Shi, N. Z., & Chang, H. H. (2012). Item-Weighted Likelihood Method for Ability Estimation in Tests Composed of Both Dichotomous and Polytomous Items. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 37(2), 298-315.  link >

Wang, C., Chang, H. H., & Douglas, J. (2012). Combining CAT with cognitive diagnosis: A weighted item selection approach. Behavior Research Methods, 44(1), 95-109.  link >

Zhang, J., Chang, H. H., & Yi, Q. (2012). Comparing single-pool and multiple-pool designs regarding test security in computerized testing. Behavior Research Methods, 44(3), 742-752.  link >

Wang, C., & Chang, H. H. (2011). Item Selection in Multidimensional Computerized Adaptive Testing-Gaining Information from Different Angles. Psychometrika, 76(3), 363-384.  link >

Wang, C., Chang, H. H., & Boughton, K. A. (2011). Kullback-Leibler Information and Its Applications in Multi-Dimensional Adaptive Testing. Psychometrika, 76(1), 13-39.  link >

Wang, C., Chang, H. H., & Huebner, A. (2011). Restrictive stochastic item selection methods in cognitive diagnostic computerized adaptive testing. Journal of Educational Measurement, 48(3), 255-273.  link >

Deng, H., Ansley, T., & Chang, H. (2010). Stratified and maximum information item selection procedures in computer adaptive testing. Journal of Educational Measurement, 47(2), 202-226.  link >

Chang, H. H., & Ying, Z. (2009). Nonlinear sequential designs for logistic item response theory models with applications to computerized adaptive tests1. Annals of Statistics, 37(3), 1466-1488.  link >

Cheng, Y., Chang, H. H., Douglas, J., & Fanmin Guo, G. (2009). Constraint-weighted a-stratification for computerized adaptive testing with nonstatistical constraints: Balancing measurement efficiency and exposure control. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 69(1), 35-49.  link >

Cheng, Y., & Chang, H. H. (2009). The maximum priority index method for severely constrained item selection in computerized adaptive testing. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 62(2), 369-383.  link >

Chang, H. H., & Ying, Z. (2008). To weight or not to weight? Balancing influence of initial items in adaptive testing. Psychometrika, 73(3), 441-450.  link >

McGlohen, M., & Chang, H. H. (2008). Combining computer adaptive testing technology with cognitively diagnostic assessment. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 808-821.  link >

Yi, Q., Zhang, J., & Chang, H. H. (2008). Severity of organized item theft in computerized adaptive testing: A simulation study. Applied Psychological Measurement, 32(7), 543-558.  link >

Chang, H.-H. (2007). Computerized Adaptive Testing. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Measurement and Statistics Article 33 SAGE Publishing.  link >

Cheng, Y., Chang, H. H., & Yi, Q. (2007). Two-phase item selection procedure for flexible content balancing in CAT. Applied Psychological Measurement, 31(6), 467-482.  link >

Yi, Q., Zhang, J., & Chang, H. H. (2006). Assessing CAT test security severity. Applied Psychological Measurement, 30(1), 62-63.  link >

Yi, Q., Zhang, J., & Chang, H. (2006). Severity of organized item theft in computerized adaptive testing: an empirical study. ETS Research Report Series, 2006(2), i-25.  link >

Leung, C. K., Chang, H., & Hau, K. T. (2005). Computerized adaptive testing: A mixture item selection approach for constrained situations. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 58(2), 239-257.  link >

Zhang, J., & Chang, H. (2005). The effectiveness of enhancing test security by using multiple item pools. ETS Research Report Series, 2005(2), i-16.  link >

Chang, H. (2004). Understanding Computerized Adaptive Testing: From Robbins-Monro to Lord and Beyond. In D. Kaplan (Ed.), The SAGE Handbook of Quantitative Methodology for the Social Sciences (pp. 118-135). Article 7 SAGE Publishing.  link >

Chang, H. H., & Van der Linden, W. J. (2003). Optimal stratification of item pools in a-stratified computerized adaptive testing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 27(4), 262-274.  link >

Leung, C. K., Chang, H. H., & Hau, K. T. (2003). Computerized adaptive testing: A comparison of three content balancing methods. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 2(5), 1-16.

Leung, C. K., Chang, H. H., & Hau, K. T. (2003). Incorporation of content balancing requirements in stratification designs for computerized adaptive testing. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 63(2), 257-270.  link >

Van der Linden, W. J., & Chang, H. H. (2003). Implementing content constraints in alpha-stratified adaptive testing using a shadow test approach. Applied Psychological Measurement, 27(2), 107-120.  link >

Yi, Q., & Chang, H. H. (2003). a-Stratified CAT design with content blocking. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 56(2), 359-378.  link >

Chang, H. H., & Zhang, J. (2002). Hypergeometric family and item overlap rates in computerized adaptive testing. Psychometrika, 67(3), 387-398.  link >

Leung, C. K., Chang, H. H., & Hau, K. T. (2002). Item selection in computerized adaptive testing: Improving the a-stratified design with the sympson-hetter algorithm. Applied Psychological Measurement, 26(4), 376-392.  link >

Pastor, D. A., Dodd, B. G., & Chang, H. H. (2002). A comparison of item selection techniques and exposure control mechanisms in CATs using the generalized partial credit model. Applied Psychological Measurement, 26(2), 147-163.  link >

Bickel, P., Buyske, S., Chang, H., & Ying, Z. (2001). On maximizing item information and matching difficulty with ability. Psychometrika, 66(1), 69-77.  link >

Chang, H. H., Qian, J., & Ying, Z. (2001). A-stratified multistage computerized adaptive testing with b blocking. Applied Psychological Measurement, 25(4), 333-341.  link >

Hau, K. T., & Chang, H. H. (2001). Item selection in computerized adaptive testing: Should more discriminating be used first? Journal of Educational Measurement, 38(3), 249-266.  link >

Chen, S. Y., Ankenmann, R. D., & Chang, H. H. (2000). A comparison of item selection rules at the early stages of computerized adaptive testing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 24(3), 241-255.  link >

Mislevy, R. J., & Chang, H. H. (2000). Does adaptive testing violate local independence? Psychometrika, 65(2), 149-156.  link >

Chang, H. H., & Ying, Z. (1999). A-stratified multistage computerized adaptive testing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 23(3), 211-221.  link >

Mislevy, R. J., & Chang, H. (1998). Does adaptive testing violate local independence? ETS Research Report Series, 1998(2), i-8.  link >

Chang, H. H., & Ying, Z. (1996). A global information approach to computerized adaptive testing. Applied Psychological Measurement, 20(3), 213-229.  link >

Chang, H. H., Mazzeo, J., & Roussos, L. (1996). Detecting DIF for polytomously scored items: An adaptation of the SIBTEST procedure. Journal of Educational Measurement, 33(3), 333-353.  link >