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Arthur Baroody

Art Baroody is a Professor of Curriculum & amp; Instruction (early childhood and elementary mathematics education) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. His research focuses on the teaching and learning of basic counting, number, and arithmetic concepts and skills by young children and children with learning difficulties. He is currently the Principal Investigator for grants from the Spencer Foundation (“Key Transitions in Preschoolers’ Number and Arithmetic Development: The Psychological Foundations of Early Childhood Mathematics Education”; 7/1/2003–6/30/2008) and the U.S. Department of Education (“Developing an Intervention to Foster Early Number Sense and Skill”; 6/16/2005–6/15/2008). He is also the Co- Principal Investigator for a grant from the National Institutes of Health (“Computer-guided Comprehensive Mathematics Assessment for Young Children”; 10/1/2005–9/30/2010). Dr. Baroody is the author of a number of books on teaching children mathematics, including Fostering Children’s Mathematical Power: An Investigative Approach to K—8 Mathematics Instruction (published 1998 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), and is the co-author of the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (3rd edition; published 2003 by Pro-Ed). He co-edited a book with Ann Dowker (Cambridge University) on mathematical learning (The development of arithmetic concepts and skills: Constructing adaptive expertise), which part of the “Studies in Mathematics Thinking and Learning” series, edited by A. Schoenfeld and published by Erlbaum Associates in 2003.

Educational Background

  • Ph.D., Educational and Developmental Psychology, Cornell University, 1979
  • B.S., Science Education, Cornell University, 1969

Key Professional Appointments

  • Professor, Curriculum & Instruction, University of Illinois, 1994-present
  • Associate Professor, Curriculum & Instruction, University of Illinois, 1989-1994
  • Assistant Professor, Elementary and Early Childhood Education, University of Illinois, 1986-1989
  • Research Associate/Assistant Professor, Center for Study of Psychological Development, University of Rochester, 1980-1986
  • Assistant Professor, Developmental Psychology, Keuka College, 1978-1986

Activities & Honors

  • National Advisory Board/External Evaluator, Teachers College, Columbia University, 2004-2009
  • Co-Guest Editor for Special Issue, Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 2007-2008
  • Review panel, grant proposal, Institute of Education Scienses, U.S. Department of Education, 2006-2008
  • Recommendation for professional nomination, State University of New York at Buffalo, 2007-
  • Reviewer, Professional Journals, 2007-
  • Reviewer, U.S. Department of Education, 2007-
  • Reviewer of book proposal, Teachers College Press, 2007-
  • Early Childhood Mathematics Education Panel Member, National Academies of Science, 2007
  • External Reviewer, Arizona State University, 2007-
  • Consultant, NickJr.com, 2006-2007
  • Consultant, National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 2006-2007
  • Editorial Panel Member, Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 2004-2007
  • Ad Hoc Reviewer, Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 2006-
  • Consultant, Leap Frog, 2006-
  • External reviewer, faculty promotion, University of California-Berkeley, 2006-
  • Consultant, University of Chicago School Mathematics Project, 2005-2006
  • Ediorial Board Member, Early Education and Development, 1989-2006
  • Disertation Award Committee, The Spencer Foundation, 2005-
  • External reviewer, National Institutes of Health, 2005-
  • External reviewer, University of New York at Buffalo, 2005-
  • Inservice instructor, Unity West Elementary School, 2005-
  • Reviewer, Professional Journals, 2005-
  • Reviewer of Handbook chapter, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2005-
  • Consultant, National Office, Arlington, VA, Public Broadcasting Service, 2004-2005
  • External Reviewer for Promotion, University of Houston, 2004-
  • Member of the Site Evaluation Team, National Science Foundation, 2004-
  • Reviewer of grant proposal, , U.S. Department of Education, 2004-
  • Reviewer of grant proposal, Ministry of Education of Belgium, 2004-
  • Reviewer of grant proposal, U.S. Department of Education, 2004-
  • Reviewer for journal articles, Professional Journals, 2004-
  • Reviewer of book chapters, Blackwell, 2004-
  • Reviewer of book chapters, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 2004-
  • Teacher In-Service Leader, Local Schools, 2004-
  • Invited Main Speaker, Mountain Plains Regional Resource Center, 2003-
  • Proposal Reviewer, School Readiness Review Panel, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 2003-
  • Consultant, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), U.S. Department of Education, 2003-
  • Faculty Fellow, College of Education, 1999-2000

Research Statement

My research has focused on the teaching and learning of the following basic number and arithmetic skills and concepts by young children and children with learning difficulties:
- Initial number concepts and skills
- Counting skills and principles
- Informal addition strategies
- Arithmetic concepts such as the principle of commutativity (<i>a</i> + <i>b</i> = <i>b</i> + <i>a</i>)
- Number-fact mastery

I am currently the Principal Investigator for the following research projects:

Fostering Fluency with Basic Addition and Subtraction”; funding from the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education pending, 7/1/2008–6/30/2012.

Two recently completed projects for which I was the Principal Investigator are:

(a) <i>Developing an Intervention to Foster Early Number Sense and Skill</i> (R305K050082), funded by the Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education (6/16/2005–6/15/2009) and

(b) <i>Key Transitions in Preschoolers Number and Arithmetic Development: The Psychological Foundations of Early Childhood Mathematics Education</i> (Kelly S. Mix, Michigan State University, co-PI), funded by the Spencer Foundation Major Grants Program, 7/03-12/08.

I am also a co-PI on two other projects: <i> </i>

(a) <i>Computer-guided Comprehensive Mathematics Assessment for Young Children</i> funded by the Program in Early Learning and School Readiness, National Institutes of Health, 10/1/2005–9/30/2010.

(b) <i>UIUC Postdoctoral Research Training Program in Mathematics Education</i> (R305B1000017), Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, 3/1/2010-8/15/2014.

Recent scholarly publications include:

Baroody, A. J., Bajwa, N. P., & Eiland, M. (2009). Why can't Johnny remember the basic facts? <i>Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 15,</i> 69-79 (Special issue on "Pathways to Mathematical Learning Disabilities," guest edited by M. Mazzocco).

*Baroody, A. J., Eiland, M., & Thompson, B. (2009). Fostering at-risk preschoolers' number sense. <i>Early Education and Development, 20,</i> 80-120.

Baroody, A. J., Lai, M.-L., Li, X., & Baroody, A. E. (2009). Preschoolers’ understanding of subtraction-related principles. <i>Mathematics Thinking and Learning, 11,</i> 41-60 (Special Issue on "Young Children's Understanding and Application of Subtraction-Related Principles," guest edited by L. Verschaffel & J. Torbeyns).

Baroody, A. J., Torbeyns, J., & Verschaffel, L. (2009). Young children's understanding and application of subtraction-related principles: Introduction. <i>Mathematics Thinking and Learning, 11,</i> 2-9 (Special Issue on "Young Children's Understanding and Application of Subtraction-Related Principles," guest edited by L. Verschaffel & J. Torbeyns).

Baroody, A. J., Li, X., & Lai, M.-L. (2008). Toddlers’ spontaneous attention to number. <i>Mathematics Thinking and Learning, 10,</i> 1–31.

Lai, M.-L., Baroody, A. J., & Johnson, A. R. (2008). Fostering Taiwanese preschoolers’ understanding of the addition-subtraction inverse principle. <i>Cognitive Development, 23,</i> 216-235.

Baroody, A. J., Feil, Y., & Johnson, A. R. (2007). An alternative reconceptualization of procedural and conceptual knowledge. J<i>ournal for Research in Mathematics Education, 38(</i>2), 115–131.

Baroody, A. J., & Lai, M.-L. (2007). Preschoolers’ understanding of the addition-subtraction inverse principle: A Taiwanese sample. <i>Mathematics Thinking and Learning, 9</i>, 131–171.

Baroody, A. J., Tiilikainen, S. H., & Tai, Y. (2006). The application and development of an addition goal sketch. <i>Cognition and Instruction, 24</i>, 123–170.

Baroody, A. J., Lai, M.-L., & Mix, K. S. (2006). The development of young children’s number and operation sense and its implications for early childhood education. In B. Spodek & O. Saracho (Eds.) <i>Handbook of Research on the Education of Young Children</i> (pp. 187–221). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Mix, K. S., Sandhofer, C. M., & Baroody, A. J. (2005). Number words and number concepts: The interplay of verbal and nonverbal processes in early quantitative development. In R. Kail (Ed.), <i>Advances in Child Development and Behavior, Vol. 33</i> (pp. 305–346). New York: Academic Press.

Baroody, A. J., Cibulskis, M., Lai, M.-L., & Li, X. (2004). Comments on the use of learning trajectories in curriculum development and research. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 6, 227–260.

Baroody, A. J., & Dowker, A. (2003). The development of arithmetic concepts and skills: Constructing adaptive expertise. “Studies in Mathematics Thinking and Learning” series, edited by A. Schoenfeld. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

As an educational and developmental psychologist, I am particularly interested in applying developmental theory and research to improving instruction, especially in the areas of early childhood and elementary mathematics education. Some of my recent work in this area include the following:

(1) Co-writer for the number and operation standards for early childhood mathematics (in D. Clements, J., & Sarama, J. (Eds.), <i>Engaging young children in mathematics: Standards for early childhood mathematics education</i>. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

(2) Co-author with Herbert P. Ginsburg, <i>Test of Early Mathematics Ability</i> (3rd ed.), published in 2003 by Pro-Ed, Austin, TX.

(3) Author of <i>Fostering children's mathematical power: An investigative approach to K-8 mathematics instruction</i>, published in (1998) by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

(4) Author of Baroody, A. J., with Johnson, A. R. (in preparation). Helping struggling learners achieve mathematical proficiency. Norwood, MA: Christopher-Gordon Publishers Inc.

Recent articles for teachers include:

(a) Baroody, A. J. (2006). Why children have difficulties mastering the basic number facts and how to help them. <i>Teaching Children Mathematics, 13</i>, 22–31.

(b) Baroody, A. J., & Wilkins, J. L. M. (2004). The inverting-a triangular array problem: An opportunity to involve students in the processes of mathematical inquiry. <i>Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 9</i>(6), 306–313.

(c) Baroody, A. J., & Benson. A. P. (2001). Early number instruction. T<i>eaching Children Mathematics, 8</i>(3), 154–158.

(d)Baroody, A. J., & Bartels, B. H. (2001). Assessing understanding in mathematics with concept mapping. <i>Mathematics in School, 30</i>(3), 24–27.

(e) Isenbarger, L. M., & Baroody, A. J. (2001). Fostering the mathematical power of children with behavioral difficulties: The case of Carter. <i>Teaching Children Mathematics, 7</i>(8), 468–471.

(f) Baroody, A. J. (2000). Does mathematics instruction for 3- to 5-year olds really make sense? <i>Young Children, 55</i>(4), 61–67.

(g) Baroody, A. J., & Bartels, B. H. (2000). Using concept maps to link mathematical ideas. <i>Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 5</i>(9), 604–609.

Grants

  • Principal Investigator, Fostering Fluency with Basic Addition & Subtraction Facts, Institute of Education Sciences, 2008-2013
  • Principal Investigator, Computer-guided Comprehensive Mathematics Assessment for Young Children, National Institutes of Health (Teachers College, Columbia University), 2005-2011
  • Principal Investigator, Developing an Intervention to Foster Early Number Sense and Skill, Institute of Education Sciences, 2005-2009
  • Principal Investigator, Key Transitions in Preschoolers' Number and Arithmetic Development: The Psychological Foundations of Early Childhood, The Spencer Foundation, 2003-2008
  • Principal Investigator, Foundations of Number and Operations Sense, National Science Foundation, 2001-2005

Select Publications

  • Baroody, A., Li, X. Mathematics instruction that makes sense for 2 to 5 year olds. Development and Education: Research Reviews from Young Children. The National Association for the Education of Young Children: New York.
  • Benson, A., Baroody, A. The case of Blake: Number-word and number development. Early Childhood Research Quarterly.
  • Baroody, A., Lai, M., Baroody, A. Preschoolers’ understanding of the addition-subtraction inverse principle. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education.
  • Baroody, A., Lai, M., Li, X., Baroody, A. Preschoolers' understanding of subtraction-related principles. Mathematics Thinking and Learning(Special Issue on "Young Children's Understanding and Application of Subtraction-Related Principles," guest edited by L. Verschaffel, A. J. Baroody, & J. Torbeyns).
  • Baroody, A., Eiland, M., Thompson, B. Fostering at-risk preschoolers' number sense. Early Education and Development.
  • Lai, M., Baroody, A., Johnson, A. Fostering Taiwanese preschoolers’ understanding of the addition-subtraction inverse principle. Cognitive Development.
  • Hannon, B., Baroody, A., Sebestik, J. Re-inventing the quadratic equation: The story of the sorry clockmaker. Teaching Middle School Mathematics.
  • Baroody, A., Li, X., Lai, M. Toddlers’ spontaneous attention to number. Mathematics Thinking and Learning.
  • Baroody, A., Johnson, A. Helping struggling learners achieve mathematical proficiency. Christopher-Gordon Publishers: Norwood, MA.
  • Baroody, A., Lai, M. (2007). Preschoolers' understanding of the addition-subtraction inverse principle: A Taiwanese sample. Mathematics Thinking and Learning, 9, 131-171.
  • Ginsburg, H., Baroody, A. (2007). Test de competencia matemática basica [Test of Early Mathematics Ability (3rd ed.) (TEMA-3).] (M. C. Núñez del Río & I. L. Guerra, Trans.). TEA Ediciones: Madrid, Spain.
  • Baroody, A., Feil, Y., Johnson, A. (2007). An alternative reconceptualization of procedural and conceptual knowledge. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 38, 115-131.
  • Baroody, A., Lai, M. (2006). -L., & Mix, K. S. (2006). The development of young children's number and operation sense and its implications for early childhood education. Handbook of research on the education of young children. Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.
  • Baroody, A., Tiilikainen, S., Tai, Y. (2006). The application and development of an addition goal sketch. Cognition and Instruction, 24(1), 123–170.
  • Baroody, A. (2006). Why children have difficulties mastering the basic number facts and how to help them. Teaching Children Mathematics, 13, 22–31.
  • Baroody, A., Tiilikainen, S., Tai, Y. (2006). The application and development of an addition goal sketch. Cognition and Instruction, 24(1), 123-170.
  • Mix, K., Sandhofer, C., Baroody, A. (2005). Number words and number concepts: The interplay of verbal and nonverbal processes in early quantitative development. Advances in child development and behavior. Academic Press: New York.
  • Baroody, A. (2005). A perspective on teaching special learners. [Review of Teaching inclusive mathematics to special learners]. Teaching Children Mathematics.
  • Baroody, A. (2005). Discourse and research on an overlooked aspect of mathematical reasoning. [Review of Reasoning by mathematical induction in children's arithmetic]. American Journal of Psychology.
  • Baroody, A. (2005). [Review of "Teaching Inclusive Mathematics to Special Learners, K-6]. Teaching Children Mathematics.
  • Baroody, A. (2004). A perspective on school mathematics reform. [Review of Standards-based school mathematics curricula: What are they?]. American Journal of Psychology.
  • Baroody, A. (2004). The role of psychological research in the development of early childhood mathematics standards. Engaging young children in mathematics: Standards for early childhood mathematics education. Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.
  • Baroody, A. (2004). The developmental bases for early childhood number and operations standards. Engaging young children in mathematics: Standards for early childhood mathematics education. Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.
  • Baroody, A., Cibulsksis, M., Lai, M., Li, X. (2004). Comments on the use of learning trajectories in curriculum development and research. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 6, 227-260.
  • Baroody, A., Wilkins, J. (2004). The inverting-a triangular array problem: An opportunity to involve students in the processes of mathematical inquiry. Mathematics Teaching in the Middle School, 9(6), 306-313.
  • Ginsburg, H., Baroody, A. (2003). Test of Early Mathematics Ability—Third Edition (TEMA-3). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.(Chinese edition of the TEMA-2, 1996; TEMA-2; 1990; TEMA, 1983). The TEMA is an individually administered pre-kindergarten to third-grade mathematics norm referenced/diagnostic test.
  • Baroody, A. (2003). The development of adaptive expertise and flexibility: The integration of conceptual and procedural knowledge. The development of arithmetic concepts and skills: Constructing adaptive expertise. Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.
  • Baroody, A., Wilkins, J., Tiilikainen, S. (2003). The development of children's understanding of additive commutativity: From protoquantitative concept to general concept? The development of arithmetic concepts and skills: Constructing adaptive expertise. Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.
  • Baroody, A., Dowker, A. (2003). The development of arithmetic concepts and skills: Constructing adaptive expertise. Studies in mathematics thinking and learning. Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.
  • Baroody, A., Wilkins, J., Tiilikainen, S. (2003). Two views of addition development. The development of arithmetic concepts and skills: Constructing adaptive expertise. Erlbaum: Mahwah, NJ.