Endnotes

1 This list is based on Michael A. Peters, Simon Marginson and Peter Murphy (2008) Creativity and the Global Knowledge Economy, New York, Peter Lang.

2 Hayek, F. (1937) ‘Economics and Knowledge.’ Presidential address delivered before the London Economic Club, November 10, 1936; Reprinted in Economica IV (new ser., 1937), 33-54; Hayek, F. (1945) ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society’, The American Economic Review, XXXV, No. 4; September: 519-30.

3 Machlup. F. (1962) The Production and Distribution of Knowledge in the United States. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

4 Becker, G. (1964, 1993, 3rd ed.) Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis, with Special Reference to Education. Chicago, University of Chicago Press.

5 Drucker, P. (1969). The Age of Discontinuity: Guidelines to Our Changing Society. New York: Harper & Row.

6 Bell, D. (1973) The Coming of Post-Industrial Society A Venture in Social Forecasting. New York: Basic Books.

7 Touraine, A. (1971) The Post-Industrial Society: Tomorrow’s Social History; Classes conflicts & Culture in the Programmed Society. L. Mayhew (trans.). New York: Random House.

8 Granovetter, M. (1973). ‘The Strength of Weak Ties,’ American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No. 6., May 1973, pp 1360-1380.

9 Porat, M. (1977). The Information Economy. Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce.

10 Toffler, A. (1980). The Third Wave. New York, Bantam Books.

11 Lyotard, J-F. (1984). The Postmodern Condition: A Report on Knowledge. Geoff Bennington and Brian Massumi (trans.) Manchester: Manchester University Press.

12 Harvey, D. (1989). The Condition of Postmodernity. Oxford: Blackwell.

13 Coleman, J. (1988). ‘Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital,’ American Journal of Sociology, 94 Supplement: (pp. S95-S-120).

14 Bourdieu, P. (1986) ‘The Forms of Capital,’ Richard Nice (trans). In: J. F. Richardson (ed.) Handbook of Theory of Research for Sociology of Education, Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press: pp. 241-58.

15 Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon and Schuster.

16 Romer, P. M. (1990). ‘Endogenous technological change’. Journal of Political Economy, 98, 71–102.

17 OECD (1996). The Knowledge-Based Economy. Paris: The Organization.

18 Stiglitz, J. (1999). ‘Knowledge for Development: Economic Science, Economic Policy, and Economic Advice.’ Proceedings from the Annual Bank Conference on Development Economics 1998. World Bank, Washington D.C. Keynote Address: pp 9–58

19 Partnership for 21st Century Skills. 2008. "21st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness."

20 Hearn, G., & Rooney, D. (2008). (eds.) Knowledge Policy: Challenges for the Twenty First Century. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.

21 Lucas, Robert E. (1988), “On the Mechanics of Economic Development, Journal of Monetary Economics (July), 22(1):342.

22 Romer, Paul (1990), “Endogenous Technical Change, Journal of Political Economy, 98(5): S71S98.

23 Barro, Robert J., and Xavier Sala-I-Martin (2007, 1995). Economic Growth, 2nd Edition, 2007, New York: McGraw Hill; Barro, Robert J. (1991), “Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries”, Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106 (2): 407444; Barro, Robert (1997), The Determinants of Economic Growth; a Cross Country Empirical Study, Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

24 Marshall, Alfred (1927). Principles of Economics, (8th ed.), London: Macmillan. Marshall, for example, said, “All that is spent during many years in opening the means of higher education to the masses would be well paid for if it called out one more Newton or Darwin, Shakespeare or Beethoven.”

25 Becker, Gary (1993). Human Capital, 3rd Ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

26 Schultz, T.W. (1971). Investment in Human Capital: the Role of Education and of Research, New York: Macmillan Co. Free Press.

27 McMahon, Walter W. (2002). Education and Development, Measuring the Social Benefits, New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press’ Angelopoulos, Konstantinos, J. Malley, and A. Philippoulos (2009). “Welfare Implications of Public Education Spending Rules”, NBER Working Paper, Feb. 2009

28 Lucas, Robert (2008). “Ideas and Growth”, NBER Working Paper, NY: National Bureau of Economic Research.

29 Department for Trade and Industry UK (1998b) Our competitive future: building the knowledge-driven economy: analytical background. (http://www.dti.gov.uk/comp/competitive/an_reprt.htm).

30 Solow R (1956) A contribution to the theory of economic growth. Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol 70, pp 65-94; Solow R (1994) Perspectives on growth theory. Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol 8, pp 45-54.

31 See Our competitive future: building the knowledge driven economy at http://www.dti.gov.uk/comp/competitive/main.htm

32 See Michael A. Peters, Simon Marginson and Peter Murphy (2008) Creativity and the Global Knowledge Economy. New York, Peter Lang; Michael A. Peters (2007) Knowledge Economy, Development and the Future of Higher Education. Rotterdam, Sense Publishers; Michael A. Peters & Tina Besley (2006) Building Knowledge Cultures: Education and Development in the Age of Knowledge Capitalism, Lanham, Boulder, NY, Oxford, Rowman & Littlefield.

33 Reich, R. (1991). The work of nations: Preparing ourselves for twenty-first century capitalism. New York: Knopf; Stuart, L. (1999). 21st century skills for 21st century job: A Report of the U.S. Department of Commerce, U.S. Department of Education, U.S. Department of Labor, National Institute for Literacy and Small Business Administration. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC; Handel, M., & Levine, D. (2004). Editor's introduction: The effects of new work practices on workers. Industrial Relations, 43(1), 1-43; Osterman, P. (2000). Revolutionizing work. Washington, D.C.: Progressive Policy Institute; Cope, B. & Kalantzis, M. Productive Diversity, Pluto Press, Sydney, 1997; Kalantzis, M. & Cope, B., New Learning, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK, 2008.

34 U.S. Department of Labor. (1991). What Work Requires of School: A SCANS report for America 2000. Washington, D.C; Autor, D., Levy, F., & Murnane, R. (2003). The skill content of recent technological change: An empirical exploration. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(4), 1279-1333.

35 Reich, R. (1991). The work of nations: Preparing ourselves for twenty-first century capitalism. New York: Knopf; Scott, A. J. (1992). The Roepke lecture in economic geography: The collective order of flexible production agglomerations: Lessons for local economic development policy and strategic choice. Economic Geography, 68, 219-33.

36 Handel, M. (2005). Worker skills and job requirements: Is there a mismatch?. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute; Olson, L. (2006). Ambiguity about preparation for workforce clouds efforts to equip students for future. Education Week, 25(38), 1.

37 Cavanagh, S. (2007). What kind of math matters? Education Week, 26(40), 21-23; Cauldron, S. (1999). The hard case for soft skills. Workforce, 78(7), 7-18; Coll, R., & Zegwaard, K. (2006). Perceptions of desirable graduate competencies for science and technology new graduates. Research in Science & Technological Education, 24(1), 29-58; Handel, M. (2005). Worker skills and job requirements: Is there a mismatch?. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute; Levesque, K., Lauen, D., Teitelbaum, P., Alt, M., Liberera, S., & MPR Associates. (2000). Vocational education in the united states: Toward the year 2000. NCES report 2000-029. National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, D.C.; National Center on Education and the Economy. (1990). America's choice: High skills or low wages! The report of the Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce Rochester, NY.

38 Bartel, A.P., and F.R. Lichtenberg (1987). “The Comparative Advantage of Educated Workers in Implementing the New Technology”, Review of Economics and Statistics, 69: 1-11.

39 U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.bls.gov/data/ on 10-10-08.

40 World Bank, Development Data Group. (2007). World Development Indicators Online. Retrieved from http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/DATASTATISTICS/0,,menuPK:232599~pagePK:64133170~piPK:64133498~theSitePK:239419,00.html on 10-10-08.

41 Krugman, P. (1979). Increasing returns, monopolistic competition, and international trade. Journal of International Economics, 9(4), 469-479.

42 Reich, R. (1991). The work of nations: Preparing ourselves for twenty-first century capitalism. New York: Knopf.

43 Juhn, C., Murphy, K., & Pierce, B. (1993). Wage inequality and the rise in returns to skill. The Journal of Political Economy, 101(3), 410-442.

44 Goldin, C., & Katz, L. (2007). Long-run changes in U.S. wage structure: Narrowing, widening, polarizing. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity. Retrieved http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/goldin/files/GoldinKatz_Brookings.pdf on 10-1-08.

45 Autor, D., Levy, F., & Murnane, R. (2003). The skill content of recent technological change: An empirical exploration. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118(4), 1279-1333.

46 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2007) Education at a Glance. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/department/0,3355,en_2649_39263238_1_1_1_1_1,00.html Goldin, Claudia and Lawrence F. Katz. 2008. The Race between Education and Technology. Cambridge: MA: Harvard University Press

47 Almeida C, Johnson C, Steinberg A (2006). “Making Good on a Promise: What Policymakers can do to support the educational persistence of dropouts”. Jobs for the Future Retrieved http://www.jff.org/download.php/MkingGood_Sum.pdf ?file=M kingGood_Sum.pdf&KC_PubID=276 11/9/2006; Swanson C (2004 A). “High School Graduation, Completion, and Dropout Indicators: A primer and catalog”. Urban Institute. Retrieved http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411116_GCDCatalog.pdf 11/9/2006; Swanson C (2004 B). “The Real Truth about low graduation rates: An evidence-based commentary”. Urban Institute. Retrieved http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411050_realtruth.pdf 11/9/2006; Mishel L (2006). “The exaggerated dropout crisis”. Education Week, 25(26), 40.

48 Bernstein, J., & Mishel, L. (2007). Economy's gains fail to reach most workers' paychecks No. Briefing Paper 195) Economic Policy Institute.

49 National Center for Education Statistics (2004). Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study: TIMSS 2003 Results. . Retrieved http://nces.ed.gov/timss/Results03.asp on 12-10-08; National Center for Education Statistics (2008). Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study: TIMSS 2007 Results. . Retrieved http://nces.ed.gov/timss/Results07.asp on 12-20-08; National Center for Education Statistics (2007). Program for International Student Assessment: A summary of findings from PISA 2006. Retrieved http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/pisa2006highlights.asp on 10-8-08.

50 Swanson C (2004 A). “High School Graduation, Completion, and Dropout Indicators: A primer and catalog”. Urban Institute. Retrieved http://www.urban.org/UploadedPDF/411116_GCDCatalog.pdf 11/9/2006

51 McMahon, Walter W. (2009). Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of HigherEducation, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, forthcoming February 20, 2009, chapter 3.

52 Mishel, Lawrence, J. Bernstein, and S. Allegretto (2007). The State of Working America, Economic Policy Institute, ILR Press, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, Fig. 1K, p.61.

53 US BLS, 2007, Table 6.

54 McMahon, 2009, Chapter 3.

55 Ibid., Table 8

56 McMahon, Walter W. (2006). “International Economic Forces Driving Higher Education Policy: the Race Involving Technology, Globalization, and Needs for Higher Education, Proceedings of the Global Human Resources Forum, Korean Government and Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea, Figure 8.

57 This assumes that there are about 400,000 additional associate and bachelors graduates, 20% of the approximately 2,000,000 in 2007 NCES (2007, Tables 27 and 28. If these on average earn $25,000 more than the average high school graduate, and pay 25% of their additional income in federal and state income and state sales taxes, the additional tax revenue is $2.5 billion.

58 See the Australian scheme at http://www.ato.gov.au/individuals/pathway.asp?pc=001/002/008/013/001&mnu=&st=&cy=1&mfp=

59 McMahon, Walter W. (2009). Higher Learning, Greater Good: The Private and Social Benefits of HigherEducation, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, forthcoming February 20, 2009, Appendix D.

60 McMahon, Walter W. (2007). “An Analysis of Education Externalities with Applications to Development in the US Deep South”, Contemporary Economic Policy, 23(3): 459-82.

61 Haveman, Robert and Barbara Wolfe (1984), Schooling and economic well being: the role of nonmarket effects, The Journal of Human Resources, 19(3): 377-407.

62 McMahon, Walter W. (2009b). “The External Benefits of Education”, International Encyclopedia of Education, Oxford: Elsevier Publishing Co., forthcoming July 2009); McMahon, Walter W. (2004). “The Social and Externality Benefits of Education, in Johnes, Geraint and Johnes, Jill (eds.), The International Handbook of the Economics of Education, London: Edward Elgar Publishers.

63 Breton, Theodore R. (2008). “Schooling and National Income: How Large Are the Externalities?”, Education Economics, 2008; 1-26.

64 Eisner, Robert (1989). The Total Incomes System of Accounts, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

65 McMahon 2009, Ch. 5.

66The Education Infrastructure Act of 1994 was introduced by Senator Carol Moseley-Braun and was passed as part of Improving America’s Schools Act (P.L. 103-382, Oct. 20, 1994).

67U.S. Government Accountability Office, School Facilities: America's Schools Not Designed or Equipped for 21st Century (HEHS-95-95), (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995); Education Writers Association, Wolves at the Schoolhouse Door: An Investigation of the Condition of Public School Buildings (Washington, D.C.: 1989); American Association of School Administrators, Schoolhouse in the Red: A Guidebook for Cutting Our Losses (Arlington, Va.: 1992).

68 Current Congressional Budget Office estimates of the government expenditure and private and business tax cut multipliers, at: http://www.dailykos.com/storyonly/2009/2/6/194044/2319/363/694258

69 Colley, S. (2000, February 1). Finding and keeping qualified technicians. American City & County. http://www.americancityandcounty.com/mag/government_finding_keeping_qualified

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70 National Science Board Committee on Education and Human Resources Task Force on National Workforce Policies for Science and Engineering. (2003). The science and engineering workforce: Realizing American’s potential. Washington DC: National Science Foundation. http://www.nsf.gov/nsb/documents/2003/nsb0369/nsb0369.pdf

71 Noeth, R. J., Cruce, T., & Harmston, M. T. (2003). Maintaining a Strong Engineering Workforce. Act Policy Report. http://www.act.org/research/policymakers/pdf/engineer.pdf

72 Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2004a). Occupational Outlook Handbook (2004-05 edition). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos197.htm

73 Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2004a). Occupational Outlook Handbook (2004-05 edition). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Labor. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos197.htm

74 Bovbjerg, B., Jeszeck, C., & Petersen, J. (2001, November). Older workers: Demographic trends pose challenges for employers and workers (Publication No. GAO-02-85). Washington DC: U.S. General Accounting Office.

75 National Academy of Engineering (2004). The engineer of 2020: Visions of engineering in the new century. Washington DC: Author.

76 Mintzberg, H. (2004). Managers, not MBAs: A hard look at the soft practice of managing and management development. San Fransisco: Berrett-Koehler.

77 Goldberg, D. E. (2006). The entreprenuerial engineer. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Pink, D. (2006). A whole new mind: Why right-brainers will rule the future. New York: Penguin Group.

78 Olsztynski, J. (2001, January 31). Blue-collar bias. Plumbing & Mechanical. http://www.pmmag.com/CDA/ArticleInformation/features/BNP__Features__Item/0,2379,19957,00.html

79 Fields, J. (2003). America’s families and living arrangements: 2003. Current population reports, P20-553. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau.

80 Giannelli, F. (2002). Survey of post-secondary school heavy equipment technology programs. Oak Brook, IL: The AED Foundation.

81 Drucker, P. F. (2001). Management challenges for the 21st century. New York: Collins; Swanson, R. A., & Holton, E. F. (2009). Foundations of human resource development (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Berrett-Koehler.

82 Reich, R. B. (1992). The work of nations: Preparing ourselves for 21st centry capitalism.

83 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2001. Investment in human capital through post-compulsary education and training. OECD Economic Outlook No. 70. Paris: author.

84 Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009). Occupational outlook handbook 2008-2009 edition: Human resources training and labor relations managers and specialists. Accessed online February 10, 2009 at: http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos021.htm

85 ASTD (2008). 2008 state of the industry report. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.

86 Eurich, N. P. (1990). The learning industry: Education for adult workers. Princeton, N.J.: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

87 Gray, K. C. & Herr, E. L. (1998). Workforce education: The basics. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

88 Lewis, T. (1998). Toward the 21st century: Retrospect, prospect for American vocationalism (Information Series No. 373). Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education.

Lynch, R. L. (n.d.). A vision of high school career and technical education for the 21st century. Washington, DC: Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

89 U.S. Department of Education. (2007). The Condition of education. Washington, DC: National Center of Educational Statistics.

90 Adelman, C. (2006). The toolbox revisited: Paths to degree completion from high school through college. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education.

91 Venezia, A. (2001). A student-centered p-16 accountability model: Encouraging high standards, equitable educational opportunities and outcomes, and flexibility within a seamless system of education. ECS Issue Paper. Denver, CO: Education of the Commission of States.

92 Carnevale, A. P. (2000). Community colleges and career qualifications. Washington, DC: American Association of Community Colleges; Carnevale, A. P., & Desrochers, D. M. (2001). Help wanted…credentials required: Community college in the knowledge economy. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

93 Kirst, M. W., & Venezia, A. (Eds.), (2004). From high school to college: Improving opportunities for success in postsecondary education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Venezia, A., Callan, P. M., Finney, J. E., Kirst, M. W., & Usdan, M. D. (2005). Betraying the college dream: how disconnected K-12 and postsecondary education systems undermine student aspirations. CA: Stanford Institute for Higher Education.

94 Hodgkinson, H. (1999). All one system: A second look. Institute for Educational Leadership. Washington, DC: Author.

95 Haycock, K., & Huang, S. (2001). Are today’s high school graduates ready? Thinking K-16, 5(1), 3-17; Van de Water, G., & Rainwater, T. (2001). What is P-16 education? Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States.

96 Ewell, E. (2004). An accountability system for doubling the numbers. In R. Kazia, J. Vargus, & N. Hoffman (Eds.), Double the Numbers: Increasing postsecondary credentials for underrepresented youth (pp. 101-112). Cambridge: Harvard Education Press.

97 Kirst, M. W., & Venezia, A. (Eds.), (2004). From high school to college: Improving opportunities for success in postsecondary education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

98 Bragg, D., Loeb, J., Gong, Y., Deng, P., Hill, J., & Yoo, J. (2002). Transition from high school to college and work for tech prep participants in eight local consortia. St. Paul, MN: National Research Center for Career and Technical Education University of Minnesota.

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99 Bragg, D., & Barnett, E. (Eds). (2006). Academic pathways to and from the community college. New Directions for Community Colleges, No. 135. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

100 Karp, M. M., Calcagno, J. C., Hughes, K. L., Jeong, D. W., & Bailey, T. R. (2007). The postsecondary achievement of participants in dual enrollment: An analysis of student outcomes in two states. St. Paul, MN: National Research Center for Career and Technical Education; Kim, J. (2006). The impact of dual and articulated credit on college readiness and total credit hours in four selected community colleges. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign; Lekes, N., Bragg, D., Loeb, J., Oleksew, C., Mazsalek, J., Laraviere, M., & Hood, L. (2007). The impact of career-technical education transition program practices on student outcomes. St. Paul: National Research Center for Career and Technical Education, University of Minnesota.

101 Voorhees, R., & Lingenfelter, R. (2003, February). Adult learners and state policy. Denver, CO: State Higher Education Executive Officers and Chicago, IL: Council for Adult and Experiential Learning.

102 Bosworth, B., Callahan, A., Choitz, V., Davidson, C., Hoops, J., Kazis, R., & McLeod, A. (2007). Adult learners in higher education: Barriers to success and strategies to improve results. Boston: Jobs for the Future.

103 Levy, F., & Murnane, R. (2005). The new division of labor: How computers are creating the next job market. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

104 Prince, D., & Jenkins, D. (2005). Building pathways to success: Lessons for community college policy and practice from a longitudinal student tracking study. CCRC Brief, 25, New York: Columbia University, Teachers College, Community College Research Center.

105Professional-technical education (PTE) is used as an umbrella term to refer to career, occupational and workforce education and training programs designed to prepare students for entry or advancement in employment.

106 Grubb, W. N., Badway, N., & Bell, D. (2003). Community colleges and the equity agenda: The potential of noncredit education. In B. Townsend, & D. Bragg, (Eds.), ASHE reader on community colleges, (pp. 227-242). Boston, MA: Pearson Custom Publishing.

107 Bailey, T., & Morest., V. (Eds.) (2006). Defending the community college equity agenda. Baltimore: John Hopkins Press.

108 Carnevale, A. P. (2000). Community colleges and career qualifications. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Community Colleges.

109 Bailey, T., (2009). Rethinking developmental education in community college. CCRC Brief, No. 40. New York: Community College Research Center, Teachers College, Columbia University.

110 Matus-Grossman, L., Gooden, S., Wavelet, M., Diaz, M., & Seuersad, R. (2002). Opening doors: Student perspectives on juggling work, family, and college. New York: Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED471815)

111 Strawn, J. (2007). Policies to promote adult education and postsecondary alignment. Washington, D.C. National Commission on Adult Literacy.

112 Jacobs, J. (2007, January). Income equity and workforce development: Balancing the simple earnings scale. Community College Journal, 77, 22-24.

113 Hecker, D. E. (2005). Occupational employment projections to 2010. Monthly Labor Review, 128, 70.

114 Mazzeo, C., Roberts, B., Spence, S., & Strawn, J. (2006). Working together: Aligning state systems and policies for individual and regional prosperity. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Workforce Strategy Center.

115 Bosworth, B., Callahan, A., Choitz, V., Davidson, C., Hoops, J., Kazis, R., & McLeod, A. (2007). Adult learners in higher education: Barriers to success and strategies to improve results. Boston: Jobs for the Future.

116 Alssid, J. L., Gruber, D., Jenkins, D., Mazzeo, C., Roberts, B., & Stanback-Stroud, R. (2002, October). Building a career pathways system: Promising practices in community college-centered workforce development. Retrieved November 1, 2008, from http://www.workforcestrategy.org/publications/<http://www.workforcestrategy.org/publications/promising_practices.pdf>; Jenkins, D., & Spence, C. (2006, October). The career pathways how-to guide. New York: Workforce Strategy Center; Henle, T., Jenkins, D., & Smith, W. (2005). Bridges to careers for low-skilled adults. Chicago, IL: Women Employed, with Chicago Jobs Council, & UIC Great Cities Institute.

117 Bragg, D., Bremer, C., Castellano, M., Kirby, C., Mavis, A., Schaad, D., & Sunderman, J. (2007). A cross-case analysis of career pathway programs that link low-skilled adults to family-sustaining wage careers. St. Paul, MN: National Center for Career and Technical Education. Retrieved December 14, 2008 from http://136.165.122.102/UserFiles/File/pubs/Career_Pathways.pdf.

118 Bragg, D., & Barnett, E. (2007). Promising breakthroughs: Year-one evaluation results of “Breaking Through”. Boston: Jobs for the Future; Bragg, D., & Barnett, E. (2009). Final report of the Charles Stewart Mott Breaking Through Foundation. Boston: Jobs for the Future.

119 Gray, K. C. & Herr, E. L. (1998). Workforce education: The basics. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

120 Kuchinke, K. P. (2003). Strengthening ties between career-technical education and human resource development. Journal of Vocational Education Research 27(2), 179-197.

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121 Kuchinke, K. P. (2007). Birds of a feather? The critique of the North American business school and its implications for educating HRD practitioners. Human Resource Development Review 6(2), 111-126.

122 Bartlett, K. R., & McKinney, W. R. (2004). A study of the role of professional development, job attitudes, and turnover among public park and recreation employees. Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 24(4), 63-81; Egan, T. M., Yang, B., & Bartlett, K. R. (2004). The effects of organizational learning culture and job satisfaction on motivation to transfer learning and turnover intention. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 15(3), 279-301.

123 Swanson, R. A. & Holton, E. F. (2009). Foundations of human resource development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

124 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, 2001. Investment in human capital through post-compulsary education and training. OECD Economic Outlook No. 70. Paris: Author.

125 Copa, G. H. (1992). A framework for the subject matter of vocational education. Report No. MDS 095). Berkeley, CA: National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

126 Eurich, N. P. (1990). The learning industry: Education for adult workers. Princeton, N.J.: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

127 ASTD (2008). 2008 state of the industry report. Alexandria, VA: American Society for Training and Development.

128 Eurich, N. P., (1985). Corporate classrooms: The learning business: A report on education in American business and industry. Princeton, N.J.: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching; Eurich, N. P. (1990). The learning industry: Education for adult workers. Princeton, N.J.: Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching.

129 Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009). Occupational outlook handbook 2008-2009 edition: Human resources training and labor relations managers and specialists. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos021.htm

130 Bureau of Labor Statistics (2009). Occupational outlook handbook 2008-2009 edition: Human resources training and labor relations managers and specialists. http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos021.htm

131 Lewis, T. (1998). Toward the 21st century: Retrospect, prospect for American vocationalism (Information Series No. 373). Columbus, OH: ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vocational Education; Lynch, R. L. (n.d.). A vision of high school career and technical education for the 21st century. Washington, DC: Department of Education, Office of Vocational and Adult Education. Draft Report.

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135 Shore, R. (2006, Spring). Preschool for all: High-quality early education for all of Illinois’ children: Executive summary. Springfield: Illinois Early Learning Council. Retrieved April 2, 2008 from http://www.illinois.gov/gov/elc/reports.cfm

136 Barnett, W. S., Hustedt, J. T., Friedman, A. H., Boyd, J. S., & Ainsworth, P. (2007). The state of preschool 2007: State preschool yearbook. New Brunswick, NJ: National Institute for Early Education Research; Zigler, E., Gilliam, W. S., & Jones, S.M. (2006). A vision for universal preschool Education. New York: Cambridge University Press; Schulman, K. & Blank, H. (2007, November). A center piece of the pre-K puzzle: Providing state prekindergarten in child care centers. Washington, DC: National Women’s Law Center.

137 Fowler, S. A., Bloom, P. J., Talan, T., Beneke, S., Kelton, R. (2008) Who’s caring for the kids? The status of early childhood workforce in Illinois—2008. Retrieved from: http://cecl.nl.edu

138 National Center for Education Statistics. (1997). International Education Expenditure Comparability Study: Final Report. NCES Working Paper No. 97-16. Retrieved http://nces.ed.gov/pubs97/9716.pdf on 10-1-08.

139 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2006). Education at a Glance 2006. Retrieved http://www.oecd.org/document/52/0,3343,en_2649_39263238_37328564_1_1_1_1,00.html on 10-1-08.

141 National Center for Education Statistics. (1997). International Education Expenditure Comparability Study: Final Report. NCES Working Paper No. 97-16. Retrieved http://nces.ed.gov/pubs97/9716.pdf on 10-1-08.

142 United State General Accounting Office. (1997). School Finance: State Efforts to Reduce Funding Gaps Between Poor and Wealthy Districts. GAO/HEHS Report 97-31. Washington DC.

143 United State General Accounting Office. (1997). School Finance: State Efforts to Reduce Funding Gaps Between Poor and Wealthy Districts. GAO/HEHS Report 97-31. Washington DC

144 Winston, G. (1999). Subsidies, hierarchy and peers: The awkward economics of higher education. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13(1)

145 Winston, G. (1999). Subsidies, hierarchy and peers: The awkward economics of higher education. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 13(1)

146 Robert Ronstadt, “Don’t Fix the Student-Aid System. Kill It,” The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 27, 2009.

147 Ronald G. Ehrenberg, Tuition Rising: Why College Costs So Much, (Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 2000).

148 F. King Alexander, “Concluding Remarks,” in What’s Happening to Public Higher Education? Ed. Ronald G. Ehrenberg (Westport, CT, Praeger and American Council on Education, 2006), pp. 338-344.

149 Joint Economic Committee, Chair, Wright Patman, The Economics and Financing of Higher Education in the United States (Wash. D.C.: Joint Economic Committee Print, 91st Congress, 1st Session, 1969.

150 See: Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades, Academic Capitalism and the New Economy: Markets, State and Higher Education, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2004).

151 Yochai Benkler (2006) The Wealth of Networks: How Social Production Transforms Markets and Freedom. New Haven, Harvard.

155 See Michael A. Peters & Rodrigo Britez (2008) Open Education & Education for Openness, Rotterdam, Sense; Michael A. Peters & Peter Roberts (2009) The Virtues of Openness, Boulder, Paradigm (forthcoming).

156 Anthony S. Bryk, President of the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, quoted at http://www.insidehighered.com/news/2008/11/20/carnegie

157 American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. (2009). Report of the Accreditation Task Force: Available: http://www.edweek.org/login.html?source=http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2008/06/18/42aacte_web.html&destination=http://www.edweek.org/ew/articles/2008/06/18/42aacte_web.html&levelId=2100

158 Ball, D. L. & Forzani, F. M. (2007). What makes education research “educational”? Educational Researcher, 36, 29-540.

159 Shavelson, Richard J. and Lisa Towne. 2002. "Scientific Research in Education." Washington DC: National Academies Press. http://books.nap.edu/books/0309082919/html

160 Quoted in Erikson, Frederick and Kris Gutierrez. 2002. "Culture, Rigor and Science in Educational Research." Educational Researcher. 31:21-24.

161 Popkewitz, Thomas S. 2004. "Is the National Research Council Committee's Report on Scientific Research in Education Scientific: On Trusting the Manifesto." Qualitative Inquiry. 10:62-78.

162 Kalantzis, Mary and Bill Cope. 2008. New Learning: Elements of a Science of Education. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.

163 Darling-Hammond, L. (2009). The 2009 Charles W. Hunt Lecture, presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education, Chicago, IL, February 8, 2009.

164 Zeichner, K. (2006). Reflections of a university-based teacher educator on the future of college- and university-based teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 326; Imig, D., & Imig, S. (2008). From traditional certification to competitive certification: a twenty-five year retrospective. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D. McIntyre & K. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 886-907). New York: Routledge.

165 Laczko-Kerr, I., & Berliner, D. (2002). The effectiveness of Teach for America and other under-certified teachers on student academic achievement: A cast of harmful public policy. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 10 (37); Kane, T.E., Rockoff, J.E., & Staiger, D.O. (2006, March). What does certification tell us about teacher effectiveness: Evidence from New York City. Working Paper 11844 (Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research).

166 Zumwalt, K., & Craig, E. (2005). Teachers characteristics: Research on the indicators of quality. In M. Cochran-Smith & K. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education: the report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education (pp. 157-260). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association; Wilson, S. & Tamir, E. (2008). The evolving field of teacher education: how understanding challenge(r)s might improve the preparation of teachers. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman-Nemser, D. McIntyre & K. Demers (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education (pp. 908-936). New York: Routledge; Zeichner, K., & Conklin, H. (2005). Teacher education programs as sites. In M. Cochran-Smith & K. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education: the report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education (pp. 645-736). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

167 Darling-Hammond, L. (2009). The 2009 Charles W. Hunt Lecture, presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education, Chicago, IL, February 8, 2009; Zumwalt, K., & Craig, E. (2005). Teachers characteristics: Research on the indicators of quality. In M. Cochran-Smith & K. Zeichner (Eds.), Studying teacher education: the report of the AERA panel on research and teacher education (pp. 157-260). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.

168 Darling-Hammond, L., Holtzman, D., Gatlin, S.J., & Helig, J.V. (2005). Does teacher preparation matter? Evidence about teacher certification, Teach for America, and teacher effectiveness. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 13(42); Boyd, D., Grossman, P., Lankford, H., Loeb, S., & Wyckoff, J. (2006). How changes in entry requirements alter the teacher workforce and affect student achievement. Education Finance and Policy, 1(2): 176-216.

169 Darling-Hammond, L. (2006). Constructing 21st century teacher education. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 300; Imig, D., & Imig, S. (2006). What do beginning teachers need to know? An essay. Journal of Teacher Education, 57(3), 286; Ball, Deborah. (2008, February). The work of teaching and the challenge for teacher education. The 2008 Charles W. Hunt Lecture, presented at the annual meeting of the American Association of Colleges of Teacher Education, New Orleans, LA, February 9, 2008.

170 e.g Finn, J. D., Achilles, C.M. (1990). Answers and questions about class size: A statewide experiment. American Educational Research Journal, 28, 557-577; Folger, J., Breda, C. (1989). Evidence from Project STAR about class size and student achievement. Peabody Journal of Education, 67, 17-33; Krueger, A. B. (1999). Experimental estimates of education production functions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114(2), 497-532.

171 U.S. Department of Education (2004). National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 2004, based on the Common Core of Data (CCD) surveys.

172 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public, Public Charter, and Private School and Teacher Surveys," 1999–2000.

173 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public, Public Charter, and Private School and Teacher Surveys," 1999–2000.

174 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Overview of Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 1999-2000. NCES Report 2001-339R. Washington, DC.

175 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). Overview of Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 1999-2000. NCES Report 2001-339R. Washington, DC.

176 Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2005). Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2005

177 Lane, K. L., Weisenbach, J. L., Little, M. A., Phillips, A., & Wehby, J. (2006). Illustrations of function-based interventions implemented by general education teachers: Building capacity at the school site. Education and Treatment of Children, 29, 549-671.

178 Sprague, J. R., & Walker, H. M. (2005). Safe and healthy schools: Practical Prevention Strategies. New York , New York : Guilford Press.

179 Snyder, Howard N., and Melissa Sickmund. 2006. Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006. National Report. Washington, D.C.: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. NCJ 212906.

180 Dinkes, R., Cataldi, E.F., & Lin-Kelly, W. (2007). Indicators of School Crime and Safety: 2007 (NCES 2008-021/NCJ 219553). National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education, and Bureau of Justice Statistics, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Washington, DC.

181 Elliott, D.S., Hamburg, B.A., and Williams, K.R. (1998). Violence in American Schools: An Overview. In Elliott, D.S., Hamburg, B.A., and Williams, K.R. (Eds.), Violence in American Schools (pp. 3–28). New York: Cambridge University Press.

182 Robert D. Putnam (2000) Bowling Alone : The Collapse and Revival of American Community, New York: Simon & Schuster.

183 Richard Sennett (2007) The Culture of the New Capitalism, Yale University Press; Richard Sennett (1992) The Fall of Public Man, New York: Alfred Knopf

184 Bauman, Z. 1992. Intimations of Postmodernity. London: Routledge.

185 John Dewey and John J. McDermott (1981) The Philosophy of John Dewey, London: Routledge

186 http://ed.uiuc.edu/uli/ ; Cope, Bill and Mary Kalantzis (eds). 2009. "Ubiquitous Learning." Champaign IL: University of Illinois Press.

187 Bozionelos, N. (2004). Socio-economic background and computer use: The role of computer anxiety and computer experience in their relationship. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 61, 725-746; Chakraborty, J., & Bosman, M. M. (2005). Measuring the digital divide in the United States: Race, income, and personal computer ownership. Professional Geographer, 57, 395-410; Haythornthwaite, C. (2007). Digital divide and e-learning. In R. Andrews & C. Haythornthwaite (Eds.), The Sage handbook of e-learning research (pp. 97-118). London: Sage.

188 Eamon, M. K. (2004). Digital divide in computer access and use between poor and non-poor youth. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare, 31, 91-112; Hacker, K. L., & Steiner, R. (2002). The digital divide for Hispanic Americans. Howard Journal of Communications, 13, 267-283; Kalyanpur, M., & Kirmani, M. H. (2005). Diversity and technology: Classroom implications of the digital divide. Journal of Special Education Technology, 20(4), 9-18; Servon, L. J., & Nelson, M. K. (2001). Community technology centers: Narrowing the digital divide in low-income, urban communities. Journal of Urban Affairs, 23, 279-290.

189 Huang, J., & Russell, S. (2006). The digital divide and academic achievement. The Electronic Library, 24, 160-173.

190 Brown, M. R., Higgins, K., & Hartley, K. (2001). Teachers and technology equity. Teaching Exceptional Children, 33(4), 32-39; Swain, C., & Pearson, T. (2002). Educators and technology standards: Influencing the digital divide. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34, 326-335; Warschauer, M., Knobel, M., & Stone, L. (2004). Technology and equity in schooling: Deconstructing the digital divide. Educational Policy, 18, 562-588.

191 Page, M. S. (1998). Conflicts of inequity: Educational technology in America. Computers in the Schools, 14, 137-153; Page, M. S. (2002). Technology-enriched classrooms: Effects on students of low socioeconomic status. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34, 389-409.

192 Glenn, A. D., & Kaviani, K. (2006). Political socialization, technology, and schools. International Journal of Social Education, 21(1), 1-17; Kim, S. (2003). The impact of unequal access to the internet on earnings: A cross-sectional analysis. Perspectives on Global Development and Technology, 2, 215-236; Mehra, B., Merkel, C., & Bishop, A. P. (2004). The internet for empowerment of minority and marginalized users. New Media and Society, 6, 781-802; Waring, S. M. (2006). The agentic power of the internet. International Journal of Social Education, 21(1), 59-72; VanFossen, P. J., & Berson, M. J. (Eds.) (2008). The electronic republic: The impact of technology on education for citizenship. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.

193 Cuban, Larry. 2001. Oversold and Underused: Computers in the Classroom. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

195 Pflaum, William D.(2004) The Technology Fix: the Promise and Reality of Computers in Our Schools; Rose, D. H. & Meyer, A. (2002). Teaching every student in the digital age. ASCD.

196 Torres., M.N. & Mercado, M. (2007) The need for critical media literacy in teacher education. In Macedo & Steinberg Media Literacy. Lang: New York.

197 Pew Internet: Teens Forge Forward with the Internet and Other New Technologies. (2005, July 25). Retrieved October 23, 2007, from http://www.pewinternet.org/press_release.asp?r=109.

198 Forrester Research. (2007, July 11). Retrieved October 23, 2007, from http://www.forrester.com/ER/Research/Survey/Excerpt/1,5449,535,00.html.

199 Espelage, D., & Horne, A. (2008). School violence and bullying prevention: From research based explanations to empirically based solutions. In S. Brown & R. Lent (Eds.), Handbook of counseling psychology, 4th edition (pp. 588 - 606. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley and Sons; Ybarra, M.L., Espelage D.L., & Mitchell, K. (2007). The co-occurrence of Internet harassment and unwanted sexual solicitation victimization and perpetration: Associations with psychosocial indicators. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41, S31-S41; Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004a). Youth engaging in online harassment:

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200 Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2004b). Online aggresssors/targets, aggressors, and targets: a comparison of associated youth characteristics. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 45, 1308 - 1316.

201 Finn, J. (2004). A survey of online harassment at a university campus. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 19, 468 – 483; Patchin, J. W., & Hinduja, S. (2006). Bullies move beyond the schoolyard: A Preliminary Look at Cyberbullying. Youth Violence & Juvenile Justice, 4, 148 -169.

202 Kowalski, R. M., Limber, S. P., & Agatston, P. W. (2008). Cyber Bullying: Bullying in the Digital Age. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

203 Shift, K., McCloud, S. & XPlane (2006). Did You Know? Available online at: [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k-8DRPCJ86U&feature=related]

204 Fobes,(2006). Available online at: http://www.forbes.com/2006/05/20/jobs-future-work_cx_hc_06work_0523jobs.html

205 Zappola, (2007). Where will the jobs be in 2012? Available online at: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20284970/; Toffler, A. (1970) Future Shock. New York: Random House.

206 Illinois Informatics Institute, Indiana School of Informatics, Healthcare Informatics, University of California at Irvine,

207 Jacobson, M. J., & Spiro, R. J. (1995). Hypertext learning environments, cognitive flexibility, and the transfer of complex knowledge: An empirical investigation. Journal of Educational Computing Research,12, 301-333.

208 Greenes, R.A. and Shortliffe, E.H. (1990) "Medical Informatics: An emerging discipline with academic and institutional perspectives." Journal of the American Medical Association, 263(8) pp. 1114–20.

209 Presky, M. (2009). H. Sapiens Digital: From Digital Immigrants and Digital Natives to Digital Wisdom. Innovate. 5(3). Nova Southeastern University Press: Miami Beach Florida. Available online at: http://innovateonline.info/

210 Pink, D. (2009). The Problem with Problems. Available online at: http://www.danpink.com/archives/2009/01/the-problem-with-problems.

211 Johnson, L., Levine, A., & Smith, R. (2009). The 2009 Horizon Report. Austin, Texas: The New Media Consortium

212 Kalantzis, Mary. 2004. "Waiting for the Barbarians: ‘Knowledge Management’ and ‘Learning Organisations’." International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management 4:1827-1833. Cope, Bill and Mary Kalantzis. 2002. "Manageable Knowledge: Communication, Learning and Organisational Change." Pp. 1-15 in Developing Knowledge Workers in the Printing and Publishing Industries: Education, Training and Knowledge Management in the Publishing Supply Chain, from Creator to Consumer, vol. 4, edited by B. Cope and R. Freeman. Melbourne: Common Ground.

213 Kemmis, Stephen and Mervyn Wilkinson. 1988. "Participatory Action Research and the Study of Practice " in Action Research in Practice: Partnership for Social Justice in Education, edited by B. Atweh, S. Kemmis, and P. Weeks. London: Routledge. p.21. http://education.qld.gov.au/students/advocacy/equity/gender-sch/action/action-cycle.html See extract at NewLearningOnline.com

214 http://L-by-D.com ; Kalantzis, Mary and Bill Cope. 2005. Learning by Design. Melbourne: Victorian Schools Innovation Commission. Kalantzis, Mary and Bill Cope. 2008. New Learning: Elements of a Science of Education. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press.

215 Homer Lane (1875-1925); Alexander S. Neill (1960), who began the school Summerhill, and published Summerhill: A Radical Approach To Child Rearing; Carl Rogers’ (1969) Freedom to Learn; Ivan Illich’s (1972) Deschooling Society.

216 See, for example, the Indian Open Schooling Network (IOSN) at http://www.nios.ac.in/, the National Institute of Open Schooling at http://www.nos.org/, and Open School BC (British Columbia) at http://www.pss.gov.bc.ca/osbc/.

218 See the OpenCourseWare Consortium for the full list of participating countries and list of courses at http://www.ocwconsortium.org/

219 The fulldeclaration can be found at http://www.capetowndeclaration.org/read-the-declaration.

220 See Michael A. Peters & Rodrigo Britez (2008) Open Education and Education for Openness, Rotterdam, Sense; Iiyoshi, Toru and M. S. Vijay Kumar. 2008. "Opening Up Education: The Collective Advancement of Education through Open Technology, Open Content, and Open Knowledge." Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

221 Gee, James Paul. 2003. What Video Games Have to Teach Us about Learning and Literacy. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; —. 2004. Situated Language and Learning: A Critique of Traditional Schooling. London: Routledge; —. 2005. Why Video Games are Good for Your Soul: Pleasure and Learning. Melbourne: Common Ground; Jenkins, Henry. 2006a. "Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education for the 21st Century." John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago; —. 2006b. Fans, Bloggers and Gamers: Exploring Participatory Culture. New York: NYU Press; Kalantzis, Mary. 2006. "Changing Subjectivities, New Learning." Pedagogies: An International Journal 1:7-12; Cope, Bill and Mary Kalantzis. 2009. "Ubiquitous Learning." Champaign IL: University of Illinois Press.

222 National Science Board. (2001). Toward a more effective role for the U.S. government in international science and engineering. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation, p7.

223 Galama, T., & Hosek, J. (2008). U.S. competitiveness in science and technology. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.

224 National Science Board. (2007). National action plan for addressing the critical needs of the U.S. science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education system. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation.

225 National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century (2000). Before it’s too late. Jessup, MD: Education Publications Center.

226 National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. (2000). Pursuing excellence: comparisons of international eighth-grade mathematics and science achievement from a U.S. perspective, 1995 and 1999. P. Gonzales, C. Calsyn, L. Jocelyn, K. Mak, D. Kastberg, S. Arafeh, T. Williams, & W. Tsen. NCES 2001–028. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

227 National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. (2004). Highlights from the trends in international mathematics and science study (TIMMS) 2003. P. Gonzales, J. C. Guzman, L. Partelow, E. Pahlke, L. Jocelyn, D. Kastberg, & T. Williams. NCES 2005 –005. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

228 National Center for Education Statistics, U.S. Department of Education. (2008). Highlights from TIMMS 2007: Mathematics and science achievement of U.S. fourth and eighth-grade students in an international context. P. Gonzales, T. Williams, L. Jocelyn, S. Roey, D. Kastberg, & S. Brenwald. NCES 2009–001. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

229 American Association of University Women. (1994). Shortchanging girls, shortchanging America: Executive summary: A nationwide poll that assess self-esteem, educational experiences, interest in math and science, and career aspirations of girls and boys ages 9–15. Washington, DC: Author.

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248 Alvermann, D. E., Hinchman, K., A., Moore, D. W., Phelps, S. F., & Waff, D. R. (2006). (Eds.) Reconceptualizing the literacies in adolescents’ lives (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum; Dressman, M., McCarthey, S. J., & Prior, P. (2009). Editor’s Introduction. Research in the Teaching of English, 44 (2); Gee, J. (2000). Teenagers in new times: A new literacy perspective. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 43, 412-420; Kress, G. (2003). Literacy in the new media age. London: Routledge; New London Group. (1996). A pedagogy of multiliteracies: Designing social futures. Harvard Educational Review, 66 (1), 60-92.

249 Grunwald Associates (2003). Connected to the future: A report on children’s Internet use from the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Retrieved on July 18, 2007, from http://www.cpb. org/stations/reports/connected/connected_report.pdf; National Telecommunications and Information Administration. (1999). Falling through the Net: Defining the digital divide. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Commerce. Retrieved on July 18, 2007, from http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/fttn99/appendix. html#e; Norris, C., Sullivan, T., Poirot, J., & Soloway, E. (2003). No access, no use, no impact: Snapshot surveys of educational technology in K-12. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 36(1): 15-28; Waldman, J.A. (2007). Acknowledging criteria: A look at research and reality of children’s digital libraries. Retrieved on August 20, 2007, from http://etd.ils.unc.edu:8080/dspace/handle/1901/ 398?mode=simple; Wells, J., & Lewis, L. (2006). Fast/Facts: Internet Access in U.S. Public Schools and Classrooms: 1994-2005 (NCES 2007-020). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved on July 30, 2007, from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=46Wells; Wells, J., and Lewis, L. (2006). Internet access in U.S. public schools and classrooms: 1994-2005 (NCES 2007-020). U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved on August 3, 2007, from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/2007020.pdf.

250 (2009). Research in the Teaching of English, 44 (2). (To be inserted—issue is as copyediting stage); Bezemer, J. & Kress, G. (2008). Writing in multi-modla texts: A social semiotic account of designs for learning. Written Communication, 25 (2), 166-195; Ranker, J. (2008). A case study of digital video production in a fifth grade classroom. Written Communication, 25 (2), 196-234.

251 Moje, E. (2009). Standpoint: Research in the Teaching of English, 44 (2).

252 National Council of Teachers of English. (2008). 21st Century Literacies: A Policy Brief.

253 For example see: Baumol, William J. 2002. The Free-Market Innovation Machine: Analyzing the Growth Miracle of Capitalism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; Cowen, Tyler. 2002. Creative Destruction: How Globalization is Changing the World's Cultures. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; Lash, Scott and John Urry. 1994. Economies of Signs and Space. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

254 See Florida, Richard. 2002. The Rise of the Creative Class. New York: Basic Books; Howkins, John. 2001. The Creative Economy: How People Make Money from Ideas. London: Allen Lane;Landry, Charles. 2000. The Creative City: A Toolkit for Urban Innovators.U.K.: Earthscan.

255 See Cowen, Tyler. 2002. Creative Destruction: How Globalization is Changing the World's Cultures. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; Shapiro, Carl and Hal Varian. 1998. Information Rules: A Strategic Guide to the Network Economy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press; Davenport, Thomas and John Beck. 2001. The Attention Economy: Understanding the new economy of business. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Business School Press; Hughes, Justin 1988. The Philosophy of Intellectual Property, 77 GEO. L.J. 287, 337- 44; Netanel, Neil Weinstock 1998. Asserting Copyright’s Democratic Principles in the Global Arena, 51 VAND. L. REV. 217, 272-76; Netanel, Neil Weinstock 1996. Copyright and a Democratic Civil Society, 106 YALE L.J. 283, 347-62; Gordon, Wendy J. 1993. A Property Right in Self-Expression: Equality and Individualism in the Natural Law of Intellectual Property, 102 YALE L.J. 1533, 1568-72; Lemley, Mark A. 2005. Property, Intellectual Property, And Free Riding, 83 Tex. L. Rev. 1031, 1031; R. Polk Wagner, 2003. Information Wants To Be Free: Intellectual Property And The Mythologies Of Control, 103 Colum. L. Rev. 995, 1001-03.

256 Blythe, Mark. 2000. ‘Creative Learning Futures: Literature Review of Training & Development Needs in the Creative Industries.’ http: //www.cadise.ac.uk/projects/creativelearning/New_Lit.doc.

257 See The Center for Accelerated learning at http://www.alcenter.com/; see e.g., The Framework for Gifted Education at http://education.qld.gov.au/publication/production/reports/pdfs/giftedandtalfwrk.pdf.

258 Caves, Richard E. 2000. Creative Industries: Contracts Between Art and Commerce. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press; Frey, Bruno. 2000. Arts and Economics: Analysis and Cultural Policy. New York: Springer; Frey, Bruno S. and Werner W. Pommerehne. 1989. Muses and Markets: Explorations in the Economics of the Arts. Cambridge, Mass: Blackwell; Ginsburgh, Victor A. and Pierre-Michel Menger (eds.). 1996. Economics of the Arts. Amsterdam: North Holland; Heilbrun, James and Charles M. Gray. 2001. The Economics of Art and Culture. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2 edition; Hesmondhalgh, Desmond. 2002. The Cultural Industries. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

259 For innovation theory see the Swedish economist Bengt-Åke Lundvall’s webpage at http://www.business.aau.dk/ike/members/bal.html and especially his concept of ‘the learning economy’; see also Globelics, The Global Network For The Economics Of Learning, Innovation, And Competence Building Systems at http://www.globelics.org/.

260

261 See Stiglitz, Joseph E. 1999. ‘Knowledge as a Global Public Good’ Global Public Goods, July 1999 , pp. 308-326(19); Verschraegen, Gert & Schiltz, Michael 2007. ‘Knowledge as a Global Public Good: The Role and Importance of Open Access’ Societies without Borders, Volume 2, Number 2, 2007 , pp. 157-174(18).

262 Brown, John Seely and Paul Duguid. 2000. The Social Life of Information. Boston: Harvard Business School Press; Tapscott, Don and Anthony Williams, 2006. Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything Portfolio (Penguin), New York; Surowiecki, James 2004. The Wisdom of Crowds: Why the Many Are Smarter Than the Few and How Collective Wisdom Shapes Business, Economies, Societies and Nations, New York, Doubleday.

263 McGuinn, Patrick J. 2006. No Child Left Behind and the Transformation of Federal Education Policy, 1965-2005. Lawrence KS: University Press of Kansas; Sunderman, Gail L., James S. Kim, and Gary Orfield. 2005. NCLB Meets School Realities: Lessons from the Field. Thousand Oaks CA: Corwin Press; Abernathy, Scott Franklin. 2007. No Child Left Behind and the Public Schools. Ann Arbor MI: University of Michigan Press.

264 Gallagher, C. J. (2003). Reconciling a tradition of testing with a new learning paradigm. Educational Psychology Review, 15 (1), 83-99; Matthews, J. (2006, Nov 14). “Just Whose Idea Was All This Testing?” The New York Times, p.A6

265 Tyack D. (1974). The One Best System: A History of American Urban Education. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; Ravitch, D. (2002). A Brief History of Testing and Accountability. Hoover Institution. Retrieved http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/4495866.html on 10-2-08.

266 Ravitch, D. (2002). A Brief History of Testing and Accountability. Hoover Institution. Retrieved http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/4495866.html on 10-2-08; Emery, K., & Ohanian, S. (2004). Why is corporate america bashing our public schools?. Portsmouth, NH: Reed Elsevier, Inc.

267 Stiggins, R.J. (2005). Assessment Crisis: The Absence of Assessment FOR Learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 83,10, 758-765.

268 Darling-Hammond, L. (2007). Race, inequality and educational accountability: The irony of No Child Left Behind. Race Ethnicity and Education, 10 (3), 245-260.

269 Allen, J., Altwerger, B., Edelsky, C. Larson, J., Rios-Aguilar C., Shannon, P. et. al. (2007). Taking a stand on NCLB. Language Arts, 84 (5), 456-464. Krashen, S. (2006). Did Reading First work? Retrieved July 16, 2008, from http://www.elladvocates.org/issuebriefs/Krashen_reading_first.pdf

270 Mixed Reactions to NCLB (2005, February). Reading Teacher, 22(4), pp. 1, 4.

271 Sunderman, G. L. (2006). The unraveling of No Child Left Behind: How negotiated changes transform the law. Cambridge, MA: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University.

272 Fuller, B., Wright, J., Gesiki, K., & Kang, E. (2007). Gauging growth: How to judge No Child Left Behind. Educational Researcher, 36 (5), 268-278.

273 Darling Hammond, L. Race, inequality and educational accountability: The irony of No Child Left Behind. Race Ethnicity and Education, 10 (3), 245-260.

274 McCaslin, M. (2006). Student motivational dynamics in the era of school reform. Elementary School Journal, 106, 479-490.

275 Center on Education Policy (July, 2007). Choice, changes, and challenges: Curriculum and instruction in the NCB era. Washington D.C.: Author. McCarthey, S. J. (2008). The impact of No Child Left Behind on teachers’ writing instruction. Written Communication, 25 (4), 462-505.

276 Finnigan, K. S., & Gross, B. (2007). Do accountability sanctions influence teacher motivation? Lessons from Chicago’s low-performing schools. American Educational Research Journal, 44 (3), 594-629.

277 Valli, L. & Bueses, D. (2007). The changing roles of teachers in an era of high-stakes accountability. American Educational Research Journal, 44(3), 519-558.

278 Parsons, M., Melissa Wilson, and the Teachers at Park Street Elementary. (2007). Success Stories from a Failing School: Teachers Living under the Shadow of NCLB. Information Age Publishing. Harper, C., Platt, E., Naranjo, C., & Boynton, S. (2007). Marching in unison: Florida ESL teachers and No Child Left Behind. TESOL Quarterly, 642-651.

279 Reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act. National Council of Teachers of English. Retrieved February 21, 2009 from http://www.ncte.org/positions/statements/2008legisplatform.

280 Cole,N.S. & Zieky, M.J. (2001). The new faces of fairness. Journal of Educational Measurement, 38 (4), 369-382.

281 Ryan, K.E.(2008) Fairness Issues and Educational Accountability. In K.E. Ryan & L. Shepard (Eds.), The futures of test-based educational accountability(pp.191-208). Routledge.

282 Mislevy,R.J.(2006). Cognitive psychology and educational assessment. In R.L. Brennan (Ed.), Educational measurement (4th ed., pp.257-305). Westport, CT: American Council on Education / Praeger.

283 National Research Council. (2001). Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. Committee on the Foundations of Assessment. In J.Pellegrino, N. Chudowsky, & R. Glaser (Eds.). Board on Testing and Assessment, Center for Education, Division of Behavior and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

284 Quellmalz, E.S. & Pellegrino, J.W. (2009). Technology and testing. Science, 323, 75-79.

285 Berkeley Evaluation & Assessment Research Center. The BEAR assessment system: A brief summary for the classroom context. Retrieved from http:// bearcenter.berkeley.edu on 02/10/2009.

286 Bandalos, D.L. (2004). Can a teacher-led state assessment system work? EducationalMeasurement: Issues and Practice. Summer, 33-40.

287 Brooks, R and Tough, S. (2006) Assessment and Testing: making space for teaching and learning London: Institute for Public Policy Research

288 Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998a). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy, and Practice, 5(1), 7–74.

289 Shepard, L. (2006). Classroom assessment: Caveat Emptor. In R.L. Brennan (Ed.), Educational measurement (4th ed., pp.623-646). Westport, CT American Council on Education / Praeger.

290 Stiggins, R. J. (2002). Assessment crisis! The absence of assessment for learning. Phi Delta Kappan, 83(10), 758-765.

291 Shepard, L. (2000). The role of classroom assessment in teaching and learning. CSE Technical Report 517, Center for the Study of Evaluation, National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards, and Student Testing.( CRESST). Los Angeles:University of California. Retrieved on 02/12/2009 from

292 Sadler, R. (1989). Formative assessment and the design of instructional systems. Instructional Science, 18, 1-25.

293 Education Equality Project. 2008, (http://www.educationequalityproject.org/) ; Ladd, Helen F., Pedro Noguera, Tom Payzant, and et al. 2007, "A Broader, Bolder Approach to Education", (http://www.boldapproach.org/)

294 Kalantzis, Mary and Bill Cope. 2008. New Learning: Elements of a Science of Education. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press. Chapter 5.

295 Day J, Newburger E. (2002). “The Big Payoff: Educational Attainment and Synthetic Estimates of Work-Life Earnings”. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved

http://www.census.gov/prod/2002pubs/p23-210.pdf on 11-11-2006

296 Bernstein, J., & Mishel, L. (2007). Economy's gains fail to reach most workers' paychecks. Briefing Paper No. 195. Washington, DC: Economic Policy Institute.

297 Wheeler, C. (2005b). Wage gap widens, especially in cities. The Regional Economist. Retrieved http://www.stls.frb.org/publications/re/2005/a/pages/wage_gap.html on 4-4-08.

298 Krueger, A. (2002). Inequality, too much of a good thing. Alvin Hansen Symposium on Public Policy. Retrieved www.irs.princeton.edu/pubs/pdfs/inequality4.pdf on 2-2-08

299 Mishel, L., Bernstein, J., & Allegretto, S. (2005). State of Working America 2004-05. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.

300 Mishel, L., Bernstein, J., & Allegretto, S. (2007). State of Working America 2006-07. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.

301 Alliance for Excellent Education. (2007). “The High Cost of High School Dropout: What the Nation Pays for Inadequate High Schools”. Retrieved http://www.all4ed.org/publications/HighCost.pdf 2/10/2007

302 Rouse, C.E. (2005). “Labor market consequence of an inadequate education”. Paper prepared for the Symposium on the Social Costs on Inadequate Education, Teachers College Columbia University, October 2005.

303 Rothstein, R. (2004). Class and schools: Using social, economic, and educational reform to close the black-white achievement gap. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.

304 Ding, W., Lehrer, F., Rosenquist, J., & Audrain-McGovern, J. (2005). The Impact of Health on Academic Performance: New Evidence using Genetic Markers; Glewwe, P., Jacoby, H. G., & King, E. M. (2001). Early childhood nutrition and academic achievement: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Public Economics, 81(3), 345-368; Hanson, T.L. and Austin, G.A. (2002). Health risks, resilience, and the Academic Performance Index.(California Healthy Kids Survey Factsheet 1). Los Alamitos, CA: WestEd; Florence, M. D., Asbridge, M., & Veugelers, P. J. (2008). Diet quality and academic performance*. Journal of School Health, 78(4), 209-215.

305 Mishel, L., Bernstein, J., & Allegretto, S. (2005). State of Working America 2004-05. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute.

306 August, D., Beck, I. L., Calderón, M., Francis, D. J., Lesaux, N. K., & Shanahan, T., with Erickson, F., & Siegal, L. S. (2008). Instruction and professional development. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing reading and writing in second language learners: Lessons from the Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth (pp. 131-250). NY: Routledge, Center for Applied Linguistics, and International Reading Association; Crawford, J. (2004). Educating English learners: Language diversity in the classroom (5th ed., formerly Bilingual education: History, politics, theory, and practice). Los Angeles: Bilingual Education Services.

307 Llagas, C., & Snyder, T.D. (2003). Status and trends in the education of Hispanics. Retrieved February 3, 2006 from http://www.nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2003008

308 Ramirez, J. D. (1992). Executive summary. Bilingual Research Journal, 16(1-2), 1-62; Wright, W. E. (2005). English language learners left behind in Arizona: The nullification of accommodations in the intersection of federal and state policies. Bilingual Research Journal, 29(1), pp. 1-29.

309 García, G. E (2000). Bilingual children’s reading. In M. Kamil, P.B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds). Handbook of reading research (vol. III, pp. 813-834). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum; García, G. E., McKoon, G., & August, D. (2008). Language and literacy assessment. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing reading and writing in second language learners: Lessons from the Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language Minority Children and Youth (pp. 251-274). NY: Routledge, Center for Applied Linguistics, and International Reading Association.

310 Genesee, F., Geva, E., Dressler, C., & Kamil, M. (2008). Cross-linguistic relationships in second-language learners. In D. August & T. Shanahan (Eds.), Developing reading and writing in second-language learners: Lessons from the report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth (pp. 61-93). NY: Routledge, International Reading Association, and Center for Applied Linguistics.

311 The nine cities are: Richmond, Virginia (57.19%), Savannah, Georgia (57.08%), Newark, New Jersey (53.46%), Flint, Michigan (53.27%), ST. Louis, Missouri (51.20%), Cleveland, Ohio (50.99%), Shreveport, Louisiana (50.80%), Portsmouth, Virginia (50.61%), Baton Rouge, Louisiana (50.02%). 2006 Census.

312 Erika Frankenberg and Chungmei Lee, “Race in American Public Schools: Rapidly Resegregating School Districts, downloaded February 8, 2009 http://www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/deseg/reseg_schools02.php

313 PARENTS INVOLVED IN COMMUNITY SCHOOLS v. SEATTLE SCHOOL DIST. NO. 1 (Nos. 05-908 and 05-915) No. 05–908, 426 F. 3d 1162; No. 05–915, 416 F. 3d 513, reversed and remanded.

314 John Ogbu, “Black Students’ School Success: Coping with the ‘Burden of Acting White’,” the Urban Review; John Ogbu, Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement (New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Publishers, 2003); and John McWhorter, Losing the Race: Self-Sabotage in Black America (New York: Free Press, 2000).

315 Erin McNamara Horvat and Carla O’Connor, Beyond Acting White: Reframing the Debate on Black Student Achievement (New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006).

316 K. Tyson, W.A. Darity Jr., and D. Castellino, “’It’s Not a Black Thing”: Understanding the Burden of Acting White and Other dilemmas of High Achievement,” American Sociological Review 70 (August 2005): 582-605; and Prudence Carter, Keepin’ it Real: School Success Beyond Black and White (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005).

317 American Association of University Women, Where the Girls Are: The Facts about Gender Equity in Education (New York: AAUW, 2008).

318 American Association of University Women, Gender Gaps: Where Schools Still Fail Our Children, New York: AAUW, 1998

319 National Women’s Law Center, When Girls Don’t Graduate We All Fail: A Call to Improve High School Graduation Rates for Girls, 2007.

320 American Association of University Women, Hostile Hallways: Bullying, Teasing, and Sexual Harassment in School (New York: AAUW, 2001).

321 Manlove, J (1998). The Influence of High School Dropout and Social Disengagement on the Risk of School-Age Pregnancy. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 8(2): p.187-220.

322 CDC, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, Vol. 17, Revised Edition; June 2007

323 CDC, Slide Set: HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Adolescents and Young Adults (through 2005).

324 Brown, R. (2002). Self harm and suicide risk for same-sex attracted young people: A family perspective. Australian e-Journal for the Advancement of Mental Health (AeJAMH), 1, 1-11.D’Augelli, A. R. (2002). The cutting edges of lesbian and gay psychology. In A. Coyle & C. Kitzinger (Eds.), Lesbian and gay psychology: New perspectives (pp. xiii-xvi). London: British Psychological Society/ Blackwell; Radkowsky, M., & Siegel, L. J. (1997). The gay adolescent: Stressors, adaptations, and psychosocial interventions. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 191-216.

325 McAnarney, E. (1985). Social maturation: A challenge for handicapped and chronically ill adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 6, 90-101.

326 Morrison, L. L., & L’Heureux, J. (2001). Suicide and gay/lesbian/bisexual youth: Implication for clinicians. Journal of Adolescence, 24, 39-49; Radkowsky, M., & Siegel, L. J. (1997). The gay adolescent: Stressors, adaptations, and psychosocial interventions. Clinical Psychology Review, 17, 191-216.

327 Mufioz-Plaza, C., Quinn, S. C., & Rounds, K. A. (2002). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students: Perceived social support in the high school environment. The High School Journal, 85, 52-63.

328 Aragon, S. R., Poteat, V.P., Espelage, D. L., & Koenig, B. W. (under review). Homophobic teasing, educational outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students. American Educational Research Journal.

329 Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., Birkett, M., & Koenig, B. W. (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have [Special issue]? School Psychology Review, 37(2), 202-216.

330 Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., Birkett, M., & Koenig, B. W. (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have [Special issue]? School Psychology Review, 37(2), 202-216.

331 D’Augelli, A.R. (2003). Mental health problems among lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths ages 14 to 21. Clinical Child Psychiatry and Psychiatry, 7, 1359-1045; D’Augeli, A. R., Pilkington, N. W., & Hershberger, S. L. (2002). Incidence and mental health impact of sexual orientation victimization of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths in high school. School Psychology Quarterly, 17, 148-167; Hershberger, S. L., & D'Augelli, A. R. (1995). The impact of victimization on the mental health and suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. Developmental Psychology, 31, 65-74; Mufioz-Plaza, C., Quinn, S. C., & Rounds, K. A. (2002). Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender students: Perceived social support in the high school environment. The High School Journal, 85, 52-63.

332 Espelage, D. L., Aragon, S. R., Birkett, M., & Koenig, B. W. (2008). Homophobic teasing, psychological outcomes, and sexual orientation among high school students: What influence do parents and schools have [Special issue]? School Psychology Review, 37(2), 202-216.

333 Grzywasc, P. (2004) Students with Disabilities and Special Education (18th edition). Birmingham AL: Oakstone

334 OSEPS’s 28th Annual Report to Congress on the Implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Act. Retrieved on Feb. 20 from http://www.ed.gov/about/reports/annual/osep/index.html

335 Gallagher, J. (2006) Driving change in special education. Baltimore: Brookes

336 Council for Exceptional Children Strategic Plan 2009-2011. Retrieved Feb 20, 2009 from http://www.cec.org

337 Smith, D. D., Pion, G. M. Tyler, N. C. & Gilmore, R. (2003) Doctoral proograms in special education: The Nation’s supplier. Teacher Education and Special Education, 26, 172-181.

338 Cook. L., & Friend, M. (1995) Co-Teaching: Guidelines for creating effective practices. Focus on Exceptional Children, 28, 1-116.

339 McLeskey, J. L., Tyler, N., Flippin, S. S. (2004) The Supply of and Demand for Special Education Teachers: A Review of Research Regarding the Chronic Shortage of Special Education Teachers. The Journal of Special Education, Vol. 38, 5-21.

340 Smith, D. D., (2009) Estimated shortages in faculty and doctoral students within the field of special education. Invited presentation at the Higher Education Consortium of Special Education, Washington, D.C. Annual Meeting.

341 Council for Exceptional Children Strategic Plan 2009-2011. Retrieved Feb 20, 2009 from http://www.cec.org

342 Coutinho, M. J., & Oswald, D. P. (2000) Disproportionate Representation in Special Education: A Synthesis and Recommendations. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9, 135-156.

343 Buysse, V., & Wesley, P. W. (Eds.) (2006). Evidence-based practice in the early childhood field. Washington, DC: Zero to Three Press.

344 See Michael A. Peters (2009) ‘Personalisation, Personalised Learning and the Reform of Social Policy: The Prospect of Molecular Governance in the Digitised Society’ in Yvonne Hébert & John Burger (Eds.), Personalised Learning (forthcoming); Campbell, R.J. et al (2007) ‘Personalised Learning: Ambiguities in Theory and Practice’, British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 55, No.2, June: 135–154; Hargreaves, D. (2004-6) Personalising Learning, http://www.clusterweb.org.uk/docs/HargreavesPersonalisedLearning.pdf; Leadbeater , C. (2005) The Shape of Things to Come: Personalisation and Collaboration in Education, at http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/sie/documents/shape.pdf; see the website at http://www.ssat-inet.net/whatwedo/personalisinglearning.aspx; see also the NZ Ministry of Education’s booklet Let’s Talk about Personlised Learning (2006) at http://www.tki.org.nz/r/personalising_learning/pdf/personalising-learning.pdf; Judy Sebba, Nick Brown, Susan Steward, Maurice Galton & Mary James (2007) An Investigation of Personalised Learning Approaches used by Schools at http://www.sussex.ac.uk/education/documents/rr843.pdf; Charles Leadbeater (2009) ‘Learning about Personalisation: How Do We Put the Leaner at the Heart of the Education System?’ at http://www.innovation-unit.co.uk/images/stories/files/pdf/Learningaboutpersonalisation.pdf.

345 See Osborne, David and Ted Gaebler (1993), Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit is Transforming the Public Sector. New York: Penguin; Blair, Tony (1999) Modernising Government. Presented to Parliament by the Prime Minister and the Minister for the Cabinet Officeby Command of Her Majesty. At http://www.archive.official-documents.co.uk/document/cm43/4310/4310.htm; Bentley, T. (2003) The Adaptive State: Strategies for personalising the public realm, at http://www.demos.co.uk/files/HPAPft.pdf; Cutler, T., Waine, B. & Brehony, K. (2007) ‘A New Epoch of Individualization? Problems with the Personalization of Public Services’, Public Administration, Vol. 85, No. 3: 847–855.

346 Michael A. Peters (2004) ‘Consumer-Citizens, Social Markets and the Reform of Public Services’, Policy Futures in Education, 2 (3-4): 621-632; Gordon Brown (2003) A Modern Agenda for Prosperity and Social Reform, speech made by the Chancellor of the Exchequer to the Social Market Foundation, Cass Business School, London, 3 February; Anthony Giddens (2003) Introduction. Neoprogressivism: a new agenda for social democracy, in A. Giddens (Ed.) The Progressive Manifesto: new ideas for the centre-left, pp. 1-34. Cambridge: Polity Press; Trentmann, F. (2004) Beyond Consumerism: new historical perspectives on consumption, Journal of Contemporary History, 39(3), pp. 373-4-1.

347 Anderson, Benedict. 1991. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso; Gellner, Ernest. 1983. Nations and Nationalism. Ithaca NY: Cornell University Press; Kalantzis, Mary and Bill Cope. 2008. New Learning: Elements of a Science of Education. Cambridge UK: Cambridge University Press, chapter 4.

348 [Cite]

349 Barack Obama, ‘Renewing American Leadership’, Foreign Affairs, July-August, 2007

350 See Michael A. Peters, Harry Blee and Alan Britton (2008) Global Citizenship Education: Philosophy, Theory, Pedagogy, Rotterdam, Sense.

351 Merry Merryfield, “Teacher Education in Global & International Education,” AACTE, 1994; Longview Foundation for Education in World Affairs and International Understanding (2008). Teacher Preparation for the Global Age: The Imperative for Change. Silver Spring, MD; Nadine Dolby and Aliya Rahman, “Research in International Education,” American Educational Research Association, August 27, 2008.

352 This material draws upon the Introduction to Environmental Education: Identity, Politics and Citizenship, Edgar González-Gaudiano and Michael A. Peters (Eds.), Rotterdam, Sense.

353 See Edgar González-Gaudiano (Ed.) ‘Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable Development’ Special Issue, Policy Futures in Education, Volume 3 Number 3 2005.

355 Ross, M. (2008). Expansion of the Universe - Standard Big Bang Model, at http://arxiv.org/ PS_cache/arxiv/pdf/0802/0802.2005v1.pdf

356 Brenan, A., & Lo, Y.-S. (2008) Environmental Ethics, Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy, at http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ethics-environmental/

357 See White, L. (1967) ‘The historical roots of our ecological crisis.’ Science, 55, 1203–1207, and; Merchant, C. (1990) The death of nature: Women, ecology, and the scientific revolution. New York: HarperOne.

358 Hermann E. Daly and Joshua Farley (2004) Ecological Economics: Principles and Applications. New York, Island Press.

359 Dan Greenwood (2007) The halfway house: Democracy, complexity, and the limits to markets in green political economy. Environmental Politics, 16(1), 73-91.

360 Jeremy Rifkin (2003) The Hydrogen Economy, New York, Tarcher.

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380 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2001). After-School Programs in Public Elementary Schools. NCES Report 2009-043. Washington, DC.

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383 Tough, P. (2008). Whatever It Takes: Geoffrey’s Canadas Quest to Change Harlem and America. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

384 Gronn, P. (2003). The new work of educational leaders: Changing leadership practice in an era of school reform. London: Paul Chapman Publishing; Grubb, W. N., & Flessa, J. J. (2006). “A job too big for one:” Multiple principals and other nontraditional approaches to school leadership. Educational Administration Quarterly, 42, 518-550.

385 Spillane, J. P., Camburn, E. M., & Pareja, A. S. (2007). Taking a distributed perspective to the school principal’s workday. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 6(1), 103-125.

386Gronn, P. (2003). The new work of educational leaders: Changing leadership practice in an era of school reform. London: Paul Chapman Publishing.

387Harris, A., Brown, D., & Abbott, I. (2006). Executive leadership: Another lever in the system? School Leadership and Management, 26, 397-409.

388Murphy, J. (2005). Connecting teacher leadership and school improvement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press; Smylie, M. A., & Hart, A. W. (2000). School leadership for teacher learning and change: A human and social capital development perspective. In J. Murphy & K. S. Louis (Eds.), Handbook of research on educational administration (2nd ed., pp. 421-441). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

389Harris, A. (2004). Distributed leadership and school improvement: Leading or misleading? Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 32(1), 11-24.

390Mayrowetz, D. (2008). Making sense of distributed leadership: Exploring the multiple usages of the concept in the field. Educational Administration Quarterly, 44, 424-435.

391Hartley, D. (2007). The emergence of distributed leadership in education: Why now? British Journal of Educational Studies, 55, 202-214.

392Firestone, W. A., & Martinez, M. C. (2007). Districts, teacher leaders, and distributed leadership: Changing instructional practice. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 6(1), 3-35; Leithwood, K., Mascall, B., Strauss, T., Sacks, R., Memon, & Yashkina, A. (2007). Distributing leadership to make schools smarter: Taking the ego out of the system. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 6(1), 37-67.

393Harris, A., Brown, D., & Abbott, I. (2006). Executive leadership: Another lever in the system? School Leadership and Management, 26, 397-409.

394 Davenport, Cynthia. "The Federal Role in Accreditation.(Letter to

the editor)." The Chronicle of Higher Education 53.22 (Feb 2, 2007)

395 http://www.advanc-ed.org/

396 Accessed online at the American Council of Trustees and Alumni, goacta.org

397 Abraham Flexner, Universities American, English, German (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1930), p. 45.

398 Ibid. (Flexner), p. 60.

399 See: Michael A. Olivas, The Law and Higher Education, Third Edition, (Durham, North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press, 2006), p. 126.

400 John Henry Newman, The Idea of a University, ed. I. T. Ker, (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976), p. 110.

401 Anthony Kenny and Robert Kenny, Can Oxford Be Improved? (Exeter, U.K.: Imprint Academic, 2007), p. 3.

402 The Chronicle of Higher Education, September 10, 2008