Taken from the American Evaluation Association
Annotated Bibliography


Compiled by Mona Amer and Samantha Matlin, Yale University School of Medicine for the Cultural Competence in Evaluation Task Force – December 2007

Hood, S. (2001). Nobody knows my name: In praise of African American evaluators who were responsive. In J.C. Greene & T.A. Abma (Eds.), Responsive Evaluation (pp. 31-43). [New Directions for Evaluation, No. 92]. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

As an African American evaluator, Hood presents his thoughts regarding the role of African Americans in evaluation research, and the importance of incorporating racial factors in the evaluation process. He reviews the contributions of African American evaluators during the Tyler Years (1940-1960), and demonstrates how their early works paralleled the current concepts of responsive evaluation, including the importance of qualitative data, shared lived experiences, and responses to the critical concerns of the evaluation participants. He questions why the work of these researchers have not been acknowledged, and argues that increasing the number of evaluators of color would lead to more efficient and effective responsive evaluations.

Letiecq, B.L. & Bailey, S. (2004). Evaluating from the outside: Conducting cross-cultural evaluation research on an American Indian reservation. Evaluation Review, 28(4), 342-357

Given the limited guidance for conducting competent and responsive cross-cultural evaluation research with American Indian communities, the authors draw on Fisher and Ball’s Tribal Participatory Research Model to highlight ways in which this project is attempting to be culturally appropriate and sensitive as they partner with an American Indian community to implement and evaluate a youth-based initiative. Challenges encountered during the evaluation are shared, as well as the authors’ collective responses to such challenges. Implications for future cross-cultural evaluation researchers are also discussed in light of these experiences.

Anderson-Draper, M.H. (2006). Understanding cultural competence through the evaluation of “Breaking the Silence: A Project to Generate Critical Knowledge About Family Violence Within Immigrant Communities.” Canadian Journal of Program Evaluation, 21(2), 59-79.

This article examines the topical concept of cultural competence for evaluators by presenting reflections on the evaluation of “Breaking the silence: A project to generate critical knowledge about family violence within immigrant communities” as a case example. Experiences of the internal evaluator in relation to cultural competency are explored and implications for practice are presented. Including sufficient time to build relationships, facilitating a learning process, and developing evaluator competencies are among the salient themes presented.

Nastasi, B.K., Moore, R.B., & Varjas, K.M.. (2004). School-based mental health services: Creating comprehensive and culturally specific programs. Washington, DC: APA.

This book presents the “participatory culture-specific intervention model (PCSIM)” as an innovative and culturally competent model aimed at developing effective school based programs that incorporate the ethnicity, race, and culture of the associated individuals and communities. The first chapter lays a theoretical framework and discusses a participatory process in developing socially valid and sustainable mental health programs in school settings. The second chapter describes how the fields of anthropology and school psychology were drawn upon for the basic concepts of PCSIM. The remaining chapters provide specific, practical, and illustrative information regarding the implementation of PCSIM, a model that incorporates a variety of methods including participant observation, expert consultation, and ongoing program improvement.


Bledsoe, K.L. & Hopson, R.K. (2008).  Conducting ethical research in underserved communities.  P.Ginsberg & D. M. Mertens (Eds.).  The Handbook of Social Research Ethics.  Thousand Oaks, CA:  Sage.

Cram, F. & Phillips, H. (2012). Claiming interstitial space for multicultural, transdisciplinary research through community-up values. International Journal of Critical Indigenous Studies, 5(2), 36-49. Available at:

Frazier-Anderson, P., Hood, S., & Hopson, R.K.  (2012).  Preliminary considerations of an African American culturally responsive evaluation system.  In S.D. Lapan, M.T. Quartaroli, & F.J. Riemer (Eds.), Qualitative Research: An Introduction to Methods and Designs (pp. 347-372).  San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.   

Gilbert, J.E., Eugene, W., Arbuthnot, K., Hood, S., Grant, M.M., West, M.L., & Swanier, C.  (2009).  Culturally relevant game design: A case study for designing interactive algebra lessons for urban youth.  i-manager's Journal of Educational Technology, 5(3), 54-60.

Gilbert, J.E., Arbuthnot, K., Hood, S., Grant, M.L., McMillian, Y., Williams, P., & Eugene, W.  (2008).  Teaching algebra using culturally relevant virtual instructors.  The International Journal of Virtual Reality, 7(1), 21-30.

Hood, S.  (2009).  Evaluation for and by Navajos: A narrative case of the irrelevance of globalization.  In K.E. Ryan & J.B. Cousins (Eds.), The SAGE International Hanbook of Educational Evaluation.  Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc.  

Hood, S. & Hopson, R.K. (2008).  Evaluation roots reconsidered:  Asa Hilliard, a Fallen Hero in the “Nobody Knows My Name” Project, and African Educational Excellence.  Review of Educational Research, 78(3), 410-426.

Hopson, R.K., Kirkhart, K.E., & Bledsoe, K.L. (2012).  Decolonizing evaluation in a developing world:  Implications and cautions for equity-focused evaluations.  In Segone, M. (Ed.). Evaluation for equitable development results (pp. 59-83).  NY: UNICEF. 

Stokes, H., Chaplin, S., Dessouky, S., Aklilu, L., & Hopson, R. (2011).  Serving marginalized populations through culturally responsive evaluation. Diaspora, Indigenous, and Minority Education., 5(3), 167-177.


Brooks, P. (2009, November). Identifying, measuring, and interpreting racism in evaluation efforts.Workshop presented at the 23rd annual conference of the American Evaluation Association, Orlando, FL.

Fitzpatrick, J.L. Sanders, J.R,. & Worthen, B.R, (2004). Program evaluation: Alternative approaches and practicalguidelines. Third Edition. Allyn and Bacon, Inc.: White Plains, N.Y.

Frierson, H. T., Hood, S., & Hughes, G. B. (2010). A guide to conducting culturally-responsive evaluations.. In Frechtling, J., The 2010 user-friendly handbook for project evaluation (pp. 75-96). National Science Foundation.

Hood, S. (2004). A journey to understand the role of culture in evaluation: Snapshots and personal reflections of one African American evaluator. In M. Thompson-Robinson, R. Hopson, & S. SenGupta (Eds.), In search of cultural competence in evaluation: Toward principles and practices. New Directions for Evaluation, No. 102. (pp. 21-37). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Hopson, R.K. (2009) Reclaiming knowledge at the margins culturally responsive evaluation in the current evaluationmoment. In K. Ryan and B. Cousins (Eds.), International Handbook of Educational Evaluation. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishing Company.

King, J. A., Nielsen, J. E., & Colby, J. (2004). Lessons for culturally competent evaluation from the study of a multicultural initiative. In M. Thompson-Robinson, R. Hopson & S. SenGupta (Eds.), In search of cultural competence in evaluation: Toward principles and practices, New Directions for Evaluation, Number 102 (pp. 67-80). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kirkhart, K. E. (2005). Through a cultural lens: Reflections on validity and theory in evaluation. In S. Hood, R. Hopson & H. Frierson (Eds.), The role of culture and cultural context: A mandate for inclusion, the discovery of truth, and understanding in evaluative theory and practice (pp. 21-39). Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing.

LaFrance, J., & Nichols, R. (2010). Reframing evaluation: Defining an Indigenous Evaluation Framework,Canadian Journal of Evaluation, 23(2), 13-31.

Pon, G. (2009). Cultural competency as new racism: An ontology of forgetting. Journal of Progressive Human Services, 20(1), 59-71.

SenGupta, S., Hopson, R., & Thompson-Robinson, M. (2004). Cultural competence in evaluation: An overview. In M. Thompson-Robinson, R. Hopson & S. SenGupta (Eds.), In search of cultural competence in evaluation: Toward principles and practices, New Directions for Evaluation, No. 102 (pp. 5-19). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

Zulli-Lowe, R. & Frierson, H. T. (2006, November). Cultural Competence in Evaluation: Beyond Race and Ethnicity. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Evaluation Association, Portland, OR.


Frierson, H.T., Hood, S., & Hughes, G.B. (2002). Strategies that address culturally-responsive evaluation. In J.F. Westat, The 2002 user friendly handbook for project evaluation (pp. 63-73). Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation. Can be obtained from:

Hood, S. (2001). Nobody knows my name: In praise of African American evaluators who were responsive. In J.C. Greene & T.A. Abma (Eds.), Responsive Evaluation (pp. 31-43). [New Directions for Evaluation, No. 92]. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.


Guzmán, B.L. (2003). Examining the role of cultural competency in program evaluation: Visions for new millennium evaluators. In S.I. Donaldson & M. Scriven (Eds.). Evaluating social programs and problems: Visions for the New Millennium (pp. 167-181). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Hood, S., Hopson, R., & Frierson, H. (Eds.) (2005). The role of culture and cultural context in evaluation: A mandate for inclusion, the discovery of truth and understanding. Greenwich, CT: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

Hopson, R. K. (2003). Overview of multicultural and culturally competent program evaluation: Issues, challenges and opportunities. Woodland Hills, CA: The California Endowment.

Kirkhart, K. E. (2010). Eyes on the prize: Multicultural validity and evaluation theory. American Journal of Evaluation 31(3). (pp. 400-413).

Letiecq, B.L. & Bailey, S. (2004). Evaluating from the outside: Conducting cross-cultural evaluationresearch on an American Indian reservation. Evaluation Review, 28(4), 342-357

Madison, A. (2007). New directions for evaluation coverage of cultural issues and issues of significance to underrepresented groups. New Directions for Evaluation, 114, 107-114.

Preskill, H. S. & Russ-Eft, D. (2004). Multicultural and cross-cultural aspects of evaluation. In H. Preskill & D. Russ-Eft (Eds.). Building evaluation capacity: 72 Activities for Teaching and training (pp. 53-73). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage

Ridley, C. R., Tracy, M. L., Pruitt-Stephens, L., Wimsatt, M. K., & Beard, J. (2008). Multicultural assessment validity. In L. A. Suzuki & J. G. Ponterotto (Eds.), Handbook of multicultural assessment: Clinical, psychological and educational applications (3rd ed., pp. 22-33). New York: John Wiley & Sons.